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Paphiopedilum fowliei

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA LILIOPSIDA ORCHIDALES ORCHIDACEAE

Scientific Name: Paphiopedilum fowliei
Species Authority: Birk
Common Name(s):
English Fowlie's Paphiopedilum
Synonym(s):
Paphiopedilum fowliei Birk forma christianae Braem
Paphiopedilum fowliei Birk variety sangianum Braem

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-08-06
Assessor(s): Rankou, H.
Reviewer(s): Fay, M.
Contributor(s): Agoo, E.M.G., Cootes, J., Golamco Jr., A., de Vogel, E.F. & Tiu, D.A.
Justification:
Global assessment: Critically Endangered (CR)

Paphiopedilum fowliei is a very rare and local species with a distribution restricted to Palawan in the Philippines.

The trend of the population is decreasing, the number of mature individuals is low and the abundance of the species has been significantly reduced in recent decades due to many threats especially habitat degradation, human disturbance, trampling, deforestation, logging, slash-and-burn and ruthless collection for regional and international trade.

The estimated extent of occurrence and the estimated area of occupancy of the species are 50 km2 and 10 km2, respectively, with an estimated continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and the quality of habitats in the single location.

Therefore, P. fowliei is assessed as Critically Endangered (CR).
History:
2004 Critically Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Paphiopedilum fowliei is endemic to Palawan in the Philippines and found at mid-elevations of 700 m asl (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cootes 2001, Cribb 1987, Fessel and Balzer 2000, Koopowitz 2008, Valmayor 1984).

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 50 km2 and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 10 km2. There is one location.
Countries:
Native:
Philippines
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Paphiopedilum fowliei is a very rare and local species with a restricted distribution in one highly depleted location. The abundance has been significantly reduced in recent decades with a high population reduction. The population density is very low and the trend of the population is decreasing. The number of mature individuals is low and the population reduction is very high (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cootes 2001, Cribb 1987, Fessel and Balzer 2000, Koopowitz 2008, Valmayor 1984).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Paphiopedilum fowliei grows as terrestrial herb on limestone rocks with leaf litter, in subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. It prefers mid-shaded habitats in tropical climates and flowers in January to April (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem et al. 1998, Cribb 1987, Cootes 2001, Fessel and Balzer 2000). The species is similar to P. acmodontum, P. urbanianum and P. argus but the leaves are grey-green and it has smaller flowers.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Paphiopedilum fowliei is an ornamental plant in high demand and is collected for commercial use for horticulture, domestic and international trade. Local people are engaged in collection of this plant from the wild for commercial traders (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Paphiopedilum fowliei is sensitive to the environment and is typically associated with a specific set of habitat conditions, such as high altitude, particular nutrient availability, moss and mid-shaded habitats.

Paphiopedilum fowliei
is under numerous threats including habitat degradation due to human disturbance, trampling, deforestation, irregular fires, logging, random cutting, slash-and-burn agriculture, soil erosion, exploitation for horticultural purposes, ruthless collection for regional and international trade.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The entire island of Palawan is declared a protected area. All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). All Paphiopedilum species are listed on Appendix I of CITES. However, the following actions are recommended to protect Paphiopedilum fowliei:
  • Cultivated specimens should be used in the trade and market supply instead of wild plants.
  • Species based management and conservation is essential to ensure to protect the remaining limited number of individuals.
  • Initiate long term community based conservation to protect the habitat and species.
  • Protection of the habitat, especially from collection, trampling and deforestation.
  • Fencing the vulnerable sites and sympathetic management of isolated subpopulations.
  • Management of habitat to reduce competition for resources (i.e., light, water, nutrients).
  • Monitoring programs are needed to track the status of existing subpopulations with respect to ongoing management practices.
  • Land protection and habitat diffuse management can be implemented to conserve habitat near or between occurrences.
  • Raise public awareness.
  • Protection of the living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban the species from being picked or dug up.
  • Ex situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.
  • Monitoring and surveillance of the existing subpopulations and sites.
  • Estimate the population size and study the dynamics.

Citation: Rankou, H. 2015. Paphiopedilum fowliei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 August 2015.
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