|Scientific Name:||Paphiopedilum fowliei Birk|
Paphiopedilum fowliei Birk fma. christianae Braem
Paphiopedilum fowliei Birk var. sangianum Braem
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Agoo, E.M.G., Cootes, J., Golamco Jr., A., de Vogel, E.F. & Tiu, D.A.|
Global assessment: Critically Endangered (CR)
Paphiopedilum fowliei is a very rare and local species with a distribution restricted to Palawan in the Philippines.
The trend of the population is decreasing, the number of mature individuals is low and the abundance of the species has been significantly reduced in recent decades due to many threats especially habitat degradation, human disturbance, trampling, deforestation, logging, slash-and-burn and ruthless collection for regional and international trade.
The estimated extent of occurrence and the estimated area of occupancy of the species are 50 km2 and 10 km2, respectively, with an estimated continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and the quality of habitats in the single location.
Therefore, P. fowliei is assessed as Critically Endangered (CR).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Paphiopedilum fowliei is endemic to Palawan in the Philippines and found at mid-elevations of 700 m asl (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cootes 2001, Cribb 1987, Fessel and Balzer 2000, Koopowitz 2008, Valmayor 1984). |
The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 50 km2 and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 10 km2. There is one location.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Paphiopedilum fowliei is a very rare and local species with a restricted distribution in one highly depleted location. The abundance has been significantly reduced in recent decades with a high population reduction. The population density is very low and the trend of the population is decreasing. The number of mature individuals is low and the population reduction is very high (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cootes 2001, Cribb 1987, Fessel and Balzer 2000, Koopowitz 2008, Valmayor 1984).|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Paphiopedilum fowliei grows as terrestrial herb on limestone rocks with leaf litter, in subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. It prefers mid-shaded habitats in tropical climates and flowers in January to April (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem et al. 1998, Cribb 1987, Cootes 2001, Fessel and Balzer 2000). The species is similar to P. acmodontum, P. urbanianum and P. argus but the leaves are grey-green and it has smaller flowers.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||7-8|
|Use and Trade:||Paphiopedilum fowliei is an ornamental plant in high demand and is collected for commercial use for horticulture, domestic and international trade. Local people are engaged in collection of this plant from the wild for commercial traders (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987).|
Paphiopedilum fowliei is sensitive to the environment and is typically associated with a specific set of habitat conditions, such as high altitude, particular nutrient availability, moss and mid-shaded habitats.
Paphiopedilum fowliei is under numerous threats including habitat degradation due to human disturbance, trampling, deforestation, irregular fires, logging, random cutting, slash-and-burn agriculture, soil erosion, exploitation for horticultural purposes, ruthless collection for regional and international trade.
The entire island of Palawan is declared a protected area. All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). All Paphiopedilum species are listed on Appendix I of CITES. However, the following actions are recommended to protect Paphiopedilum fowliei:
|Citation:||Rankou, H. 2015. Paphiopedilum fowliei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T46348A43318725.Downloaded on 25 September 2017.|