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Paphiopedilum ciliolare

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA LILIOPSIDA ORCHIDALES ORCHIDACEAE

Scientific Name: Paphiopedilum ciliolare
Species Authority: (Rchb.f.) Stein.
Common Name(s):
English Short Haired Paphiopedilum
Synonym(s):
Cypripedium ciliolare Rchb.f.
Cypripedium miteauanum Linden & Rodigas
Paphiopedilum superbiens (Rchb.f.) Stein subspecies ciliolare (Rchb.f.) M.W.Wood

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd; B2ab(ii,iii,v); C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-08-05
Assessor(s): Rankou, H.
Reviewer(s): Fay, M.
Contributor(s): Agoo, E.M.G., Cootes, J., Golamco Jr., A., de Vogel, E.F. & Tiu, D.A.
Justification:
Global assessment: Endangered (EN)

Paphiopedilum ciliolare is a rare and local species with a distribution restricted to four islands (Luzon, Mindanao, Camiguin and Dinagat) in the Philippines.

The trend of the population is decreasing and the number of mature individuals is low, estimated to be less than 2,500. The abundance has been significantly reduced with a high population reduction of up to 80% in the last three generations and a similar decline is projected in the future three generations. This is as most of the localities are quickly stripped due to many threats, especially habitat degradation, human disturbance, trampling, deforestation, logging, slash-and-burn agriculture and ruthless collection for regional and international trade. The estimated area of occupancy of the species is 300 km2 with an estimated continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and the quality of habitat in all four locations.

Therefore, P. ciliolare is assessed as Endangered (EN).
History:
2004 Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Paphiopedilum ciliolare is endemic to four islands in the Philippines (Luzon Island: Bontoc, Mt. Province; Mindanao: Agusan del Norte and del Sur, Surigao del Norte and del Sur; Camiguin Island; Dinagat Island) and is found between 300 and 1,800 m asl (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cootes 2001, Cribb 1987, Fessel and Balzer 2000, Koopowitz 2008, Valmayor 1984).

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 190,000 kmand the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 300 km2. There are four locations.
Countries:
Native:
Philippines
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Paphiopedilum ciliolare is a rare and local species with a very restricted distribution. The species abundance has been significantly reduced with a high population reduction of up to 80% in the last three generations and projected in the next three generations as most of the localities are quickly stripped. The population density is very low and the trend of the population is still decreasing. The number of mature individuals is low and estimated to be less than 2,500 (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem et al. 1998, Cootes 2001, Fessel and Balzer 2000, Valmayor 1984).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Paphiopedilum ciliolare grows as a terrestrial herb, commonly found in decomposed volcanic soil. It tends to grow at the base of bushes on limestone along volcanic ridges under low forests, in subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. It prefers mid-shaded habitats in tropical climates and flowers in late winter (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem et al. 1998, Cootes 2001, Fessel and Balzer 2000).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Paphiopedilum ciliolare is an ornamental plant in high demand and is extensively collected for commercial use for horticulture, domestic and international trade.  Local people are engaged in collection of this plant from the wild for commercial traders (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Paphiopedilum argus is under numerous threats including habitat fragmentation and degradation due to human disturbance, trampling, deforestation, irregular fires, logging, random cutting, slash-and-burn agriculture, soil erosion, expansion of settlement areas, exploitation for horticultural purposes, and ruthless collection for regional and international trade. The species is threatened more generally by climate change and the effects of these threats might be heightened by intrinsic factors of the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). All Paphiopedilum species are listed on Appendix I of CITES. However, the following actions are recommended to protect Paphiopedilum ciliolare:
  • Cultivated specimens should be used in the trade and market supply instead of wild plants.
  • Species based management and conservation is essential to ensure to protect the remaining limited number of individuals.
  • Initiate long term community based conservation to protect the habitat and species.
  • Protection of the habitat, especially from collection, trampling and deforestation.
  • Fencing the vulnerable sites and sympathetic management of isolated subpopulations.
  • Management of habitat to reduce competition for resources (i.e., light, water, nutrients).
  • Monitoring programs are needed to track the status of existing subpopulations with respect to ongoing management practices.
  • Land protection and habitat diffuse management can be implemented to conserve habitat near or between occurrences.
  • Raise public awareness.
  • Protection of the living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban individuals from collecting the species.
  • Ex situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.
  • Monitoring and surveillance of the existing subpopulations and sites.
  • Estimate the subpopulation sizes and study their dynamics.

Citation: Rankou, H. 2015. Paphiopedilum ciliolare. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 August 2015.
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