|Scientific Name:||Paphiopedilum ciliolare|
|Species Authority:||(Rchb.f.) Stein.|
Cypripedium ciliolare Rchb.f.
Cypripedium miteauanum Linden & Rodigas
Paphiopedilum superbiens (Rchb.f.) Stein subspecies ciliolare (Rchb.f.) M.W.Wood
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd; B2ab(ii,iii,v); C1 ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Agoo, E.M.G., Cootes, J., Golamco Jr., A., de Vogel, E.F. & Tiu, D.A.|
Global assessment: Endangered (EN)
Paphiopedilum ciliolare is a rare and local species with a distribution restricted to four islands (Luzon, Mindanao, Camiguin and Dinagat) in the Philippines.
The trend of the population is decreasing and the number of mature individuals is low, estimated to be less than 2,500. The abundance has been significantly reduced with a high population reduction of up to 80% in the last three generations and a similar decline is projected in the future three generations. This is as most of the localities are quickly stripped due to many threats, especially habitat degradation, human disturbance, trampling, deforestation, logging, slash-and-burn agriculture and ruthless collection for regional and international trade. The estimated area of occupancy of the species is 300 km2 with an estimated continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and the quality of habitat in all four locations.
Therefore, P. ciliolare is assessed as Endangered (EN).
Paphiopedilum ciliolare is endemic to four islands in the Philippines (Luzon Island: Bontoc, Mt. Province; Mindanao: Agusan del Norte and del Sur, Surigao del Norte and del Sur; Camiguin Island; Dinagat Island) and is found between 300 and 1,800 m asl (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cootes 2001, Cribb 1987, Fessel and Balzer 2000, Koopowitz 2008, Valmayor 1984).
The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 190,000 km2 and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 300 km2. There are four locations.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Paphiopedilum ciliolare is a rare and local species with a very restricted distribution. The species abundance has been significantly reduced with a high population reduction of up to 80% in the last three generations and projected in the next three generations as most of the localities are quickly stripped. The population density is very low and the trend of the population is still decreasing. The number of mature individuals is low and estimated to be less than 2,500 (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem et al. 1998, Cootes 2001, Fessel and Balzer 2000, Valmayor 1984).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Paphiopedilum ciliolare grows as a terrestrial herb, commonly found in decomposed volcanic soil. It tends to grow at the base of bushes on limestone along volcanic ridges under low forests, in subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. It prefers mid-shaded habitats in tropical climates and flowers in late winter (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem et al. 1998, Cootes 2001, Fessel and Balzer 2000).|
|Use and Trade:||Paphiopedilum ciliolare is an ornamental plant in high demand and is extensively collected for commercial use for horticulture, domestic and international trade. Local people are engaged in collection of this plant from the wild for commercial traders (Agoo et al. 2003, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987).|
|Major Threat(s):||Paphiopedilum argus is under numerous threats including habitat fragmentation and degradation due to human disturbance, trampling, deforestation, irregular fires, logging, random cutting, slash-and-burn agriculture, soil erosion, expansion of settlement areas, exploitation for horticultural purposes, and ruthless collection for regional and international trade. The species is threatened more generally by climate change and the effects of these threats might be heightened by intrinsic factors of the species.|
All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). All Paphiopedilum species are listed on Appendix I of CITES. However, the following actions are recommended to protect Paphiopedilum ciliolare:
|Citation:||Rankou, H. 2015. Paphiopedilum ciliolare. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 September 2015.|
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