|Scientific Name:||Burhinus oedicnemus (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Burhinus oedicnemus and B. indicus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously lumped as B. oedicnemus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Burfield, I., Ieronymidou, C., Pople, R., Wheatley, H. & Wright, L|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
In Europe this species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern in Europe.
Within the EU27 this species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern in the EU27.
Native:Albania; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; France; Georgia; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (European Russia); Serbia; Slovakia; Spain; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Vagrant:Belgium; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; Iceland; Ireland; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Netherlands; Norway; Sweden
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 53,400-88,200 pairs, which equates to 107,000-176,000 mature individuals. The population in the EU27 is estimated at 47,600-77,600 pairs, which equates to 95,300-155,000 mature individuals. For details of national estimates, see the Supplementary Material.|
Trend Justification: In Europe and the EU27 the population size is estimated to be increasing. For details of national estimates, see attached PDF.
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species inhabits lowland heath, semi-natural dry grassland, infertile agricultural grassland, steppe on poor soil, desert and extensive sand-dunes (Tucker and Heath 1994). It breeds on open, bare ground or areas with little vegetation (Batten et al. 1990), and has adapted to arable land but only where crops are short or have an open structure during the breeding season, such as maize, carrots, sugar beet and sunflowers (Green 1988); intensively grown cereals are normally too tall and dense in spring to be used (Tucker and Heath 1994). Communal daytime roosts in autumn and winter in Spain occupy traditional sites which have some cover (e.g. shrubland, gravel pits, vineyards) and include both local birds and winter visitors (Barros 1995). It breeds in spring in most of its range (Hume and Kirwan 2013), with egg-laying from early April to June or early July (Snow and Perrins 1998). Breeding occurs between February and June in the Canary Islands and from April in U.K.. The nest is a scrape on the ground, lined with a little grass or unlined, but often with a ring of stones or shells and pieces of vegetation around rim. It usually lays two eggs (Hume and Kirwan 2013). Northern and eastern European populations migrate in autumn to southern Europe, the Middle East and Africa (Snow and Perrins 1998, Hume and Kirwan 2013). Populations in Iberia are resident whilst the Canary Islands population remain within the island group, but sometimes move from island to island (Hume and Kirwan 2013).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||10.5|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||Pressures from habitat loss and disturbance have affected this species, particularly those associated with forestry, agricultural intensification, decline in sheep rearing in places, and human recreational pressure on coasts. Many birds are shot and trapped on migration in Mediterranean region but numbers and effects on populations uncertain; collisions with overhead wires and fences, and predation by foxes also cause numerous losses (Hume and Kirwan 2013).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. EU Birds Directive Annex I. Bern Convention Appendix II. In the U.K. this is a Biodiversity Action Plan species and is the subject of a Species Recovery Programme carried out by English Nature and the RSPB, under which nests on arable farmland have been located and protected with the help of farmers and landowners. Agri-environment schemes such as the Countryside Stewardship Scheme are creating nesting areas for the species. Most important sites for the species are protected as Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), National Nature Reserves (NNRs) or Ministry of Defence training areas (Batten et al. 1990).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Careful management of important sites, including grazing by sheep or rabbits is needed. Continuation and expansion of agri-environment schemes and management would benefit this species (Batten et al. 1990). Conservation in Europe largely depends on future modifications of land-use policies and also on mutual understanding with farmers (Hume and Kirwan 2013). International legislation on hunting should be enforced. Make overhead wires and fences more visible. The impacts of predation and hunting should be assessed and suitable responses developed.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Burhinus oedicnemus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T45111439A66716946.Downloaded on 23 July 2018.|
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