||Pauxi unicornis Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1939
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||Pauxi unicornis and P. koepckeae (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as P. unicornis following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).
||85-95 cm. Large, black cracid with long frontal casque. All-black, with white vent and tip to tail. Bright red bill and pale blue casque shaped as an upright horn, in contrast to P. koepckeae which has a casque that is flattened against the head and is shorter and rounder. P. koepckeae also has only a thin white tip to the tail. The legs are normally pale red but yellowish in the male in the breeding season. Female like male, but also has a rufous colour phase. Voice A booming series of four phrases lasting c.9 seconds and repeated every 15 seconds, final phrase is a far carrying emphatic hmm. Alarm call is an explosive disyllabic k-sop. Hints Best located when booming during the main part of the breeding season (probably August-December), but separation from booming Razor-billed Curassow Mitu tuberosa is difficult unless close enough to hear all phrases.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Fjeldså, J., Gastañaga, M., Hennessey, A., Lloyd, H., MacLeod, R., Maccormack, A. & Soria, R.
||Benstead, P., Keane, A., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Martin, R, Taylor, J. & Ashpole, J
This species qualifies as Critically Endangered because its population is now estimated to be declining extremely rapidly owing to hunting and habitat destruction. It also has a small range and is known from few locations in a narrow altitudinal band, which is subject to habitat loss.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2015 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2014 – Critically Endangered (CR)
|Range Description:||Pauxi unicornis is known to occur only in central Bolivia. It is known from the adjacent Amboró and Carrasco National Parks (Cox et al. 1997, Herzog and Kessler 1998, Mee 1999, R. MacLeod in litt. 2000) and has more recently been found in Isiboro-Secure Indigenous Territory and National Park (TIPNIS) and along the outer edge of the Cordillera Mosetenes, Cochabamba, Bolivia (R. MacLeod in litt. 2007). It was formerly found along the length of Carrasco's northern boundary (R. MacLeod in litt. 2000), but recent surveys found it in very few locations here (R. MacLeod in litt. 2007). Extensive searches over several years have failed to locate the species in Madidi National Park, La Paz, Bolivia (R. MacLeod in litt. 2003, Hennessey 2004a, A. MacCormick in litt. 2004), in the rio Tambopata area near the Peru/Bolivia border (R. MacLeod in litt. 2004, Gastañaga and Hennessey 2005) and in the Cordillera Cocapata and along the inner edge of Cordillera Mosetenes in Cochabamba (R. MacLeod in litt. 2003, R. MacLeod in litt. 2007). The species occurs at densities of up to 20 individuals/km2, although this appears to be exceptional and at most sites only one or two individuals have been found (R. MacLeod in litt. 2007, del Hoyo and Motis 2004). |
Bolivia, Plurinational States of
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||10700|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||6-10||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||450|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1150|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is poorly known; the total population is estimated to number 1,000-4,999 mature individuals, roughly equivalent to 1,500-7,500 individuals in total.|
Trend Justification: A model of forest loss in the Amazon basin since 2002 (Soares-Filho et al. 2006), combined with the species’s approximate range and data on its ecology and life history (following the methods of Bird et al. 2011), suggests that the species will lose 20-30% of suitable habitat in the Amazonian portion of its range (as defined by the model, and which accounts for 98% of its global extent of suitable habitat) over 44 years (estimate of three generations).
Field surveys in Carrasco National Park between 1998 and 2004 suggest the species is extremely vulnerable to hunting. In one valley it declined from at least 20 singing territorial males in 1999 to none in 2004, and similar or even greater human encroachment/hunting pressure has taken place elsewhere within the range (R. MacLeod and R. W. Soria-Auza in litt. 2014). It therefore seems reasonable to suspect there has been a population decline of >80% since the 1990s, and given the presumed further increase in hunting pressure as the entire population becomes within close range of human settlement, without effective protection of national parks (which does not currently exist) the species could be effectively extinct in the wild within 20-30 years (R. MacLeod in litt. 2014). The population trend is therefore placed in the band 80-100% over three generations.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||1000-4999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|