|Scientific Name:||Heterodontus ramalheira|
|Species Authority:||(Smith, 1949)|
Gyropleurodus ramalheira Smith, 1949
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Cavanagh, R.D., Kyne, P.M. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)|
A rare and little-known benthic shark of the outer continental shelf and uppermost slope of southern and East Africa and the eastern Arabian Peninsula, unusual for the family Heterodontidae in being a relatively deepwater species found at 40 to 275 m, with most records below 100 m and from trawler hauls. Presumably taken as bycatch in demersal trawl fisheries. This species is known from only a very few records within its distributional range and virtually nothing is known of its biology.
|Range Description:||A very poorly known species.|
Native:Mozambique; Oman; Somalia; South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal); Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – western
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Nothing is known of its population structure. Apparently rare or uncommon (Compagno 2001).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Little is known of this rare benthic hornshark. Recorded from the outer continental shelf and uppermost slope in 40 to 275 m, with most records below 100 m (unusual for the family in being recorded from relatively deep water). At least one station that recorded this shark was on sand (Compagno 2001). Although eggcases have not been reported to date it is presumably oviparous. A hatchling and young individuals have been recorded from off southern Mozambique at 110 m (Compagno 2001).
Diet includes crabs (from the stomachs of two individuals) (Compagno 2001).
|Major Threat(s):||Unknown, but presumably taken in trawl fisheries throughout its range, including crustacean trawlers off South Africa and Mozambique.|
|Conservation Actions:||None in effect, but further research is required.|
|Citation:||Ebert, D.A. 2004. Heterodontus ramalheira. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 March 2014.|
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