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Heterodontus quoyi

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA CHONDRICHTHYES HETERODONTIFORMES HETERODONTIDAE

Scientific Name: Heterodontus quoyi
Species Authority: (Fréminville, 1840)
Common Name/s:
English Galapagos Bullhead Shark, Peruvian Horn Shark
Spanish Gato, Suno, Tiburón Gato De Galápagos, Tiburón Tamborín
Taxonomic Notes: Compagno (2001) notes that N. Chirichigno (1980, pers. comm. to Compagno 1984) suggested that there may be two species under H. quoyi, with some differences between the true quoyi from the Galapagos Islands and the Peruvian form. Taylor (1972) examined material from both localities and concluded them to be one species. Compagno (2001) follows Taylor (1972).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Assessor/s: Kyne, P.M., Rivera, F. & Leandro, L.
Reviewer/s: Cavanagh, R.D. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)
Justification:
A poorly known, primarily nocturnal, tropical and warm-temperate hornshark endemic to the coast and offshore islands of Peru and the Galapagos Islands in the Southeast Pacific. Reaches a maximum size of 105 cm total length (TL). Oviparous, but little else known of its biology. Protected in the Galapagos Marine Reserve where it is not common and has an apparent limited distribution in suitable habitat (Rivera, unpublished data). While not presently fished in the Galapagos the apparent limited population size places this possible subpopulation of the species in a vulnerable position if it began to be captured here. This species is not of interest in commercial fisheries, but is presumably taken as bycatch by inshore fisheries elsewhere in its known range; however, little information is available. Research is required (taxonomy, ecology, bycatch, habitat) to accurately assess its conservation status.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Galapagos bullhead shark is not common around the Galapagos Archipelago. In the west it is located at the east and the north side of Fernandina Island and the west side of Isabela Island. This area is known as the Canal Bolivar. In the south part of Galapagos it is located only in Floreana Island and only at the west side of the island (upwelling area). This shark is associated with cold waters and where upwelling is strong (Rivera, unpubl. data).
Countries:
Native:
Ecuador (Galápagos); Peru
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – southeast
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The Galapagos Islands subpopulation is distinct from the Peruvian subpopulation(s), however, little information is available on population structure.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: A small poorly known tropical and warm-temperate hornshark, demersal on the inshore continental and insular shelves. In the Galapagos it is associated with colder waters and where upwelling is strong. It occupies rocky and coral reefs, often seen at 3 to 30 m (Compagno 2001, Allen and Robertson 1994). It is primarily nocturnal feeding on crabs. Oviparous. Maximum size 105 cm total length (TL); adult male 48 cm TL; newly hatched male 17 cm TL (Compagno 2001, Rivera unpublished data).
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Not fished in the Galapagos Islands but the apparent limited population size, and possible subpopulation, places the species in a vulnerable position if it began to be captured here. Apparently not a commercial species, though probably taken as bycatch elsewhere in its range and discarded (Compagno 2001). Presumably impacted by inshore fisheries, but no information available.

Commonly observed by divers (Compagno 2001) and may have ecotourism value.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Protected in the Galapagos Marine Reserve where there are ?protected zones? in which fishing is not permitted.
Citation: Kyne, P.M., Rivera, F. & Leandro, L. 2004. Heterodontus quoyi. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 April 2014.
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