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Ctenosaura oedirhina 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Iguanidae

Scientific Name: Ctenosaura oedirhina de Queiroz, 1987
Common Name(s):
English Roatán Spiny-tailed Iguana, De Queiroz's Spiny-tailed Iguana, Wishywilly
Spanish Garrobo
Taxonomic Notes:

This species was only fairly recently described, hence it is often referenced in the literature as Ctenosaura bakeri or Enyaliosaura bakeri, the sister species it was split from.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2010-02-07
Assessor(s): Pasachnik, S., Ariano-Sánchez, D., Burgess, J., Montgomery, C.E. & Köhler , G.
Reviewer(s): Grant, T.D. & Hoffmann, M.
Justification:
The Roatán Spiny-tailed Iguana is found in an area less than 5,000 km² and the population is severely fragmented, occurring in 5–10 isolated subpopulations. The iguana is continuing to decline due to ongoing habitat loss and hunting pressure, and is therefore listed as Endangered.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

The Roatán Spiny-tailed Iguana is restricted to Isla Roatán and Isla Barbaretta, Honduras. This iguana has also been recorded from Big Pigeon Cay, an islet of Roatán (McCranie et al. 2005), but this was not confirmed on recent surveys (S. Pasachnik pers. obs. 2010).  Similarly, reports of this iguana occurring on Morat, a small island between Roatán and Barbaretta, were not confirmed in 2006 (S. Pasachnik pers. obs.). There are small subpopulations of this iguana on multiple small cays around Roatán, however, the names of these cays are often inconsistent, further hindering systematic surveying (S. Pasachnik pers. obs. 2010). It is recorded as occurring from sea level up to 100 m.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Honduras (Honduran Caribbean Is.)
Additional data:
Number of Locations:5-10
Upper elevation limit (metres):100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

Total population size is not known, but perhaps is less than 2,500 mature individuals, split into 5-10 subpopulations. The sustainability of each subpopulation is not known. Genetic data indicate that there are distinct haplotypes throughout the island, but more data are needed in order to understand the degree of divergence between subpopulations (S. Pasachnik pers. comm. 2009).

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:0-2500Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:UnknownPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:UnknownAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The Roatán Spiny-tailed Iguana occurs in a variety of habitat types including beach and rocky ocean front, mangrove, and tropical dry forest (Holdridge 1967). It is semi-arboreal, and uses hollow branches and rocks as retreats. Little is known about the ecology of this iguana, however, research is currently under-way to obtain natural history data for this species.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Although this iguana is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), exploitation for food and the pet trade are both contributing to the decline of this species. Hunting for food, both whole animals and eggs, is a significant threat to the persistence of this species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss and modification associated with residential and commercial development, as well as small-scale agriculture and ranching, is the main threat to the iguana. The population is expected to decline dramatically if the current rate of habitat conversion continues (S. Pasachnik pers. comm. 2009). Small-scale eradication of individuals due to them being perceived as pests is also a threat. The wide-ranging congener, Ctenosaura similis, has recently been introduced to a small satellite island, less than 50 m from Roatán. This invasive species could easily disperse to Roatán and also threaten the Roatán Spiny-tailed Iguana through competition and hybridization. Current efforts are under-way to minimize this threat through removal (S. Pasachnik pers. comm. 2009).

Although this iguana is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), exploitation for food and the pet trade are both contributing to the decline of this species. Hunting for food, both whole animals and eggs, is a significant threat to the persistence of this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The Roatán Spiny-tailed Iguana is known to occur within Port Royal Wildlife Refuge, Saint Helene Wildlife Refuge, and Barbaret Marine Reserve.  However, there is no form of conservation enforcement within this area, thus this iguana is afforded no protection. There is significant potential for some areas on Roatán and smaller cays to be protected through individual landowner grass-roots conservation actions. Several of these areas have been identified and researchers are working with many locals to keep hunting of this iguana off their property. Captive populations supporting conservation efforts exist in Rotterdam Zoo and in private collections in Germany and the Netherlands. Ongoing conservation actions conducted by S.A. Pasachnik and the Bay Islands Foundation include life history research, an outreach and education program developed in collaboration with local educators, and the creation of a management plan.

The species is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Citation: Pasachnik, S., Ariano-Sánchez, D., Burgess, J., Montgomery, C.E. & Köhler , G. 2015. Ctenosaura oedirhina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T44191A73610844. . Downloaded on 18 November 2017.
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