Cyanea copelandii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Campanulales Campanulaceae

Scientific Name: Cyanea copelandii Rock
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-05-02
Assessor(s): Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Keir, M.
Reviewer(s): Sporck-Koehler, M.
Contributor(s): Chau, M., Gon, S.M., Kwon, J., Sporck-Koehler, M., Sugii, N., Weisenberger, L. & Yoshioka, J.M.
Cyanea copelandii is assessed as Endangered. The taxon is endemic to the islands of Maui and Hawaiʻi. Cyanea copelandii subsp. copelandii was last collected in 1957 by an unknown collector and is considered to be Extinct. Cyanea copelandii subsp. haleakalaensis has an extent of occurrence of 341 km². It has experienced severe and ongoing decline in habitat and numbers due to the impacts of invasive plants and animals. Its distribution is severely limited, occurring in only a few subpopulations on a single island. This qualifies the taxon for a ranking of Endangered under criteria B1ab(i,iii,iv,v).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Endemic to the Hawaiian islands, between 660 and 1,600 m elevation on the islands of Maui and Hawaiʻi. Only subspecies haleakalaensis is extant. Cyanea copelandii subsp. copelandii is considered Extinct. See subspecies accounts for further details.
Countries occurrence:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):660
Upper elevation limit (metres):1600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


The taxon is rare, with a total estimated population of 500 individuals.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:500Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A small epiphytic (grows upon another plant or object merely for physical support) shrub (0.3-2 m tall) which grows in wet montane forests dominated by Cibotium spp.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats to this taxon are habitat degradation and/or destruction by feral pigs; competition from several invasive alien plant taxa such as Rubus argutus (Prickly Florida Blackberry), Psidium cattleianum (Strawberry Guava), Clidemia hirta (Koster’s Curse), Paspalum conjugatum (Hilo Grass), Miconia calvescens (Velvet Tree), Ageratina adenophora (Maui Pamakani), and Tibouchina herbacea (Glorybush); and landslides. In addition, this taxon is potentially threatened by predation by rats and slugs, unrestricted collecting or excessive visits by individuals interested in seeing rare plants, and by extinction due to random environmental and human events because of the small population sizes. Fortini et al. (2013) characterized this taxon as extremely vulnerable to climate change (vulnerability index [0.45]).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The taxon is on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and also on the State of Hawaiʻi Endangered Species List. One of the subpopulations does occur in a protected area, and it is managed and monitored by the National Park Service and State of Hawaiʻi. Ex situ cultivation and propagule storage is ongoing. Further research is needed on general ecology, life history, population size, distribution, and trends; population genetics, and threats.

Citation: Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Keir, M. 2016. Cyanea copelandii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T44140A83790517. . Downloaded on 26 April 2018.
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