|Scientific Name:||Ctenitis squamigera (Hook. & Arn.) Copel.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bruegmann, M.M. & Caraway, V.|
|Reviewer(s):||Ranker, T. & Wood, K.R. (Pteridophyte Red List Authority)|
Ctenitis squamigera has a population of less than 250 mature individuals (less than 350 individuals in total) with no subpopulation having more than 50 mature individuals. There are 18 known subpopulations. There is continuing decline due to the impacts of invasive species, particularly axis deer and possibly fires.
The species has an Endangered Federal Status (designated in 1994) and has a Global Heritage Rank of G1 (=Critically Imperiled) and a National Rank of N1 (==Critically Imperiled).
G1 N1 Heritage Ranks.
|Range Description:||The subpopulations of this fern that have been observed within the last 20 years are in the Waianae Mountains of O`ahu, Lana`i, East and West Maui, and Moloka`i.|
Native:United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Ctenitis squamigera is typically found in the understorey of lowland mesic forests (380–915 m).|
|Major Threat(s):||This species and its habitat is threatened by the following: habitat degradation by feral animals (goats, pigs and Axis Deer); competition for space, light, water, and nutrients from alien plants; and fire. In addition, this species is subject to an increased likelihood of extinction and reduced reproductive vigour from random naturally occurring (stochastic) events due to the small number of remaining individuals and its very narrow distribution.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is one of four included in a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1998) recovery plan. Plants are currently found on lands owned or managed by the Federal government, where Federal law protects all plants from damage or removal: Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and U.S. Army installations. The Army is aware of the ferns presence and location, and preliminary draft management plans have been developed. The Army is also consulting with the U.S.F.W.S and negotiations are underway to control threats and promote recovery of endangered species. Recovery actions recommended include the removal of feral animals, minimizing the impact of military training activities, monitoring known populations, controlling fires and alien weeds, building enclosures around some of the most intact portions of native forest in conjunction with hunting on Lana`i. Surveys to locate and map additional subpopulations are also important to the recovery.|
|Citation:||Bruegmann, M.M. & Caraway, V. 2003. Ctenitis squamigera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2003: e.T44128A10862276.Downloaded on 20 June 2018.|
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