Erigeron incertus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Asterales Asteraceae

Scientific Name: Erigeron incertus (d'Urv.) Skottsb.
Common Name(s):
English Hairy Daisy
Hieracium incertum d'Urv.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-04-10
Assessor(s): Upson, R., McAdam, J.H., Clubbe, C.P. & Lewis, R.
Reviewer(s): Hilton-Taylor, C. & Bilz, M.
Contributor(s): Broughton, D.A.

The Hairy Daisy is a national endemic of the Falkland Islands with an extent of occurrence (EOO) of about 16,478 km² and an area of occupancy (AOO) of between 44 and 150 km² (depending on the grid size used). The population is severely fragmented across the archipelago with most subpopulations consisting of only a few individuals. The species appears to be vulnerable to grazing pressure and this is inferred to have a continued negative impact on the extent and quality of habitat available for colonization.

At present the total number of individual mature 'clumps' (clusters of rosettes forming a continuous patch and an easy to distinguish countable unit) of E. incertus is estimated as fewer than 1,000. The majority of subpopulations consist of less than 10 'clumps' with only three subpopulations currently known to include over 100.

Based on the information above, although the species qualifies for a Vulnerable listing under its extent of occurrence and the population size, it also qualifies as Endangered under the area of occupancy, hence following the rules, the Hairy Daisy is listed  as Endangered.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Erigeron incertus is widespread but scarce across the Falkland Islands, occurring in 21 ten km UTM grid squares. The majority of subpopulations occur in the west of the archipelago.
Countries occurrence:
Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:44
Number of Locations:18
Lower elevation limit (metres):1
Upper elevation limit (metres):143
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Total population can be inferred to be under 1,000 mature individuals. The population size is based on the total number of individual mature 'clumps' i.e. clusters of rosettes forming a continuous patch and an easy to distinguish countable unit. Most of the subpopulations consist of less than 10 'clumps' with only three subpopulations known to have over 100 'clumps'.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:500-1000,800-900Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

E. incertus is a perennial herb occurring predominantly in dry places within Empetrum rubrum dwarf shrub heath on coastal slopes or further inland on exposed rocky ridges. On Motley Island, which has not been grazed since 1992, several subpopulations occur within open Poa alopecurus acid grassland-dwarf shrub heath mosaic vegetation.

At present the distribution of E. incertus appears to be at least partly determined by grazing pressure, with the largest subpopulations occurring where there is lighter or no grazing. Its shade tolerance is not known, however, it is generally found in open vegetation. E. incertus has an altitudinal range of 1-143 m a.s.l.

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is not known to be used.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Its distribution pattern strongly suggests that E. incertus is vulnerable to grazing pressure and habitat degradation.

There is also a potential risk of inbreeding within the small, fragmented subpopulations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Ex situ Conservation:

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (RBG Kew): Leaf material has been collected from two subpopulations and is currently held at RBG Kew Herbarium for future genetic research and DNA banking.

Seed from E. incertus is also stored at Kew's Millennium Seed Bank.

In situ Conservation:

E. incertus is listed on the Falkland Islands Conservation of Wildlife and Nature Ordinance (Falkland Islands Government 1999).

Subpopulations are known from Motley Island, an ungrazed nature reserve owned by Falklands Conservation.

A full census of one of the largest known subpopulations was carried out in February 2010 by Falklands Conservation, permanent monitoring plots were set up and monitored in 2011 then again in 2012. Overall, Falklands Conservation have carried out population surveys at the majority of the known sites for this species.

Conservation Needed:

  • Seed viability testing, germination temperature and condition optimization, methods of transplantation and propagation investigations.
  • Further leaf material should be collected for DNA extraction. Also the collection and storage of seeds from across the range is needed to safe-guard genetic heterogeneity.

Research Needed:

  • Searches for new subpopulations and re-location of historical records should continue.
  • There is a need to set up further long term demographic monitoring of subpopulations in order to gather information on vegetative growth, reproduction, recruitment and mortality at a range of sites. This should include protected sites.
  • Determine the extent of clonality in wild subpopulations using genetic analyses, to inform conservation decisions.

Citation: Upson, R., McAdam, J.H., Clubbe, C.P. & Lewis, R. 2012. Erigeron incertus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T44043A15245000. . Downloaded on 19 June 2018.
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