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Cebus apella ssp. apella

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CEBIDAE

Scientific Name: Cebus apella ssp. apella
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Parent Species:
Common Name/s:
English Guianan Brown Capuchin
Spanish Macaco Prego, Mono Capuchin Pardo
Taxonomic Notes: Silva Jr (2001, 2002) argued that the tufted capuchins and the untufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) are so distinct in their morphology that they should be considered separate genera. Cebus Erxleben, 1777 for the untufted group, and Sapajus Kerr, 1792 is the name available for the tufted capuchins.

Taxonomy of the tufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) follows Silva Jr (2001), who did not recognize any subspecific forms. Groves (2001, 2005) presented an alternative taxonomy for the tufted capuchins as follows: C. apella apella (Linnaeus, 1758); C. apella fatuellus (Linnaeus, 1766); C. apella macrocephalus Spix, 1823; C. apella peruanus Thomas, 1901; C. apella tocantinus Lönnberg, 1939; C. apella ?margaritae Hollister, 1914; C. libidinosus libidinosus Spix, 1823; C. libidinosus pallidus Gray, 1866; C. libidinosus paraguayanus Fischer, 1829; C. libidinosus juruanus Lönnberg, 1939; C. nigritus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809); C. nigritus robustus Kuhl, 1820; C. nigritus cucullatus Spix, 1823; C. xanthosternos Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (see Fragaszy et al., 2004; Rylands et al., 2005).

Groves (2001) and Silva Jr. (2001) differ in their definitions of the forms Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1758) and Cebus macrocephalus Spix, 1823. Cebus apella fatuellus (Linnaeus, 1766), C. apella peruanus Thomas, 1901, and C. libidinosus juruanus Lönnberg, 1939 recognized by Groves (2001) are considered junior synonyms of C. macrocephalus by Silva Jr. (2001). C. apella tocantinus Lönnberg, 1939 recognized by Groves (2001) is considered a junior synonym of C. apella by Silva Jr. (2001).

Whereas all other tufted capuchins are considered species (following Silva Jr., 2001), the taxonomic status of the Margarita island capuchin has still to be reviewed. Silva Jr. (2001) did not examine specimens from the Island of Margarita, Venezuela. Groves (2001; see also Linares 1998) supposed that it was introduced in Pre-Columbian times, and found it to be more closely allied to C. a. fatuellus than with C. a. apella. (Note that C. a. fatuellus is recognized as a valid subspecies by Groves but considered by Silva Jr (2001) to be a junior synonym of C. macrocephalus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor/s: Rylands, A.B., Boubli, J.-P., Mittermeier, R.A. & Wallace, R.B.
Reviewer/s: Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern as the subspecies is widespread and there are currently no major threats resulting in a significant overall population decline that would warrant listing in a threatened category or listing as Near Threatened. Although declines need to be considered over a period of 45 years (three generations), the species is more of a habitat generalist than other species with similar life-histories. However, it is declining in some parts of its range, including southern Para state, Tocantins state, and northern Mato Grosso.
History:
2003 Least Concern (IUCN 2003)
2003 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Countries:
Native:
Brazil (Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, Tocantins); French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of (Venezuela (mainland))
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Systems: Terrestrial
Citation: Rylands, A.B., Boubli, J.-P., Mittermeier, R.A. & Wallace, R.B. 2008. Cebus apella ssp. apella. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 April 2014.
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