|Scientific Name:||Phragmipedium lindenii|
|Species Authority:||(Lindl.) Dressler & N.H.Williams|
Paphiopedilum lindenii (Lindl.) V.A.Albert & Börge Pett.
Uropedium lindenii Lindl.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Romand-Monnier, F. & Chadburn, H.|
The extent of occurrence (EOO) for Phragmipedium lindenii exceeds the threshold for a threatened category. The recent range extension to Peru also suggests that more populations may be found, with further botanical survey, within this new range. Although it is rated as Endangered in Venezuela, reports that it is relatively widespread and locally abundant in Colombia, occurring in extensive populations on road cuttings (Koopowitz 2008), and having a rating of Least Concern here (Farfan 2007), infers an area of occupancy (AOO) and population that also exceed the thresholds. The threat of illegal collection is very great and it is this threat that has led to its Endangered (A1d) rating in Venezuela (Foldats et al. 2003). Artificial propogation may help relieve illegal collection pressure. However, it is important that the population should be carefully monitored for any decline which could change the conservation status of this species.
|Range Description:||Phragmipedium lindenii is a large terrestrial, lithophytic, or epiphytic orchid. It has been reported from mountainous areas of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador (Dressler and Williams 1975, Coz and Bravo 2007, Villafuerte and Christenson 2007). New records have recently been found in Peru, which represents a large range extension (Coz and Bravo 2007, Villafuerte and Christenson 2007).|
Native:Colombia; Ecuador; Peru; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This orchid was assessed as Least Concern in Colombia in 2007 (Calderon-Saenz 2006). However, it is reported to be Endangered (A1d) in Venezuela (Foldats et al. 2003). Collecting trips to a forest concession in San Martin Province in Peru, were conducted in October and November 2006, and six individuals were reported. Recorded sites in Ecuador have their localities protected. The current size and dynamics of the population are unknown but it seems likely that, although the range is large, the population may be relatively small. The recent range extension to Peru, finding two sites (Coz and Bravo 2007), suggests that the range may be relatively little surveyed botanically and further populations may be found.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This orchid grows as a terrestrial or on rocks. It is found in premontane, montane and cloud forests, from 1,200 to 2,800 m, and has been found on road embankments, in ravines and precipices and in shrubby vegetation. This orchid also grows as an epiphyte, for example, on Cedrela odorata and Nectandra species (Dressler and Williams 1975, Calderon-Saenz 2006, Coz and Bravo 2007, Koopowitz 2008). It flowers from March to December and is self-pollinating (Dressler and Williams 1975). It has a third pollinium which contacts the stigmatic surface before the flowers even open, ensuring self pollination. In a greenhouse setting, virtually every flower was found to set fruits and produce seed due to the efficiency of this mechanism. Phragmipedium lindenii is unique among the slipper orchids in lacking the characteristic sculptured pouch, instead the lip is modified to resemble a third trailing petal (Villafuerte and Christenson 2007).|
|Use and Trade:||It is an attractive slipper orchid, and slipper orchids are very popular with collectors. This orchid is propagated in Ecuador and is available commercially (Villafuerte and Christenson 2007).|
|Major Threat(s):||Natural habitats in the region are suffering from conversion, degradation and fragmentation, however, reports of this orchid on roadsides in Colombia (Koopowitz 2008) suggests that this orchid shows some ability to regenerate and persist after anthropogenic disturbances. It is an attractive slipper orchid, and slipper orchids are very popular with collectors. This orchid is propagated in Ecuador and is available commercially (Villafuerte and Christenson 2007). However, it could suffer locally from illegal collection (Calderon-Saenz 2007, Villafuerte and Christenson 2007). Over-collecting is a particularly serious threat to orchids that are important in trade and can lead to the extinction of a species in the wild within a few years of discovery. The discovery of Phragmipedium besseae in the 1980s, with its novel red flowers, caused a marked increase in trade and renewed hobbyist interest in this genus. More recently in 2002, the discovery of Phragmipedium kovachii in Peru, with its large purple flowers, has further stimulated interest in this group (McGough et al. 2006). In Venezuela the principal threat to this orchid is identified as exploitation for ornamental purposes leading to population reduction and categorisation of this species as Endangered in this country (Foldats et al. 2003).|
|Conservation Actions:||This orchid is thought to occur in conservation areas, but confirmation is required, as many locality details are not revealed to protect this species from the threat of illegal collection. The fact that the plant is micropropagated and available in trade may have helped to relieved the pressure put on the wild population, but the threat of illegal collection remains. Due to the risk of overcollection of this popular slipper orchid, subpopulations should be monitored at regular intervals but locality details withheld. The genus Phragmipedium is listed on Appendix I of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species). An Appendix I listing effectively prohibits the trade in wild-collected plants, but allows trade in artificially propagated plants, subject to permit (CITES 2009). However, Phragmipedium become more sought after when the genus was listed in Appendix 1, and listing created a surge of interest and consequently a commercial demand for these species (Koopowitz et al. 1993). This orchid has been assessed as Least Concern in Colombia in 2007 (Calderon-Saenz 2006) but as Endangered (A1d) in Venezuela (Foldats et al. 2003). This orchid is conserved ex situ, for example, in the Jardin Botanique de Montréal. It is recommended that seeds are stored as part of ex situ conservation measures.|
|Citation:||Romand-Monnier, F. & Chadburn, H. 2013. Phragmipedium lindenii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 May 2015.|
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