Paphiopedilum appletonianum 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Asparagales Orchidaceae

Scientific Name: Paphiopedilum appletonianum (Gower) Rolfe
Common Name(s):
English Appleton's Paphiopedilum
Cordula appletoniana (Gower) Rolfe
Cypripedium wolterianum Kraenzl.
Cypripedium appletonianum Gower
Paphiopedilum cerveranum Braem
Paphiopedilum wolterianum (Kraenzl.) Pfitzer

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-10-16
Assessor(s): Rankou, H. & Kumar, P.
Reviewer(s): Fay, M.
Global assessment: Endangered (EN)

Paphiopedilum appletonianum is local and rare. Averyanov (2008) says it is one of the most common species in Viet Nam and so its presence in Laos is inferred. There had never been any authentic records from India and it has been reported from a single locality in Thailand (Seidenfaden 1973) but there have been no recent records since.

The population trend is decreasing due to many threats including ruthless collection for regional and international trade, exploitation for horticultural purposes, logging, habitat degradation and human disturbance. The estimated area of occupancy of the species is 48 km2 with an estimated continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and the quality of habitat in all five locations.

Therefore, Paphiopedilum appletonianum is assessed as Endangered (EN).

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Paphiopedilum appletonianum occurs in northeast India, south China to Indochina. The species has been reported in India (Assam), China (Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand (Chanthaburi) and Viet Nam (Dak Lac, Dak Nong, Khanh Hoa, Kon Tum, Lam Dong, Ninh Thuan, Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien – Hue) (Seidenfaden 1973, Cribb 1998, Chowdhery 2004, Aveyranov 2008, Liu et al. 2009, Chen et al. 2009). Seidenfaden (1973) discusses the presence of this species in Assam, India, but the assessors are unsure on what grounds as this species has never been seen or documented from India.

Based on historical records, the extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated as 1,450,790 km2 and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated as 60 km2, whereas based on current records, EOO is estimated as 652,586 km2 and AOO is estimated as 48 km2. The values based on current records will be used in this assessment. There are five locations.

The species is found between 300 and 2,000 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Cambodia; China (Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan); India (Assam); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Thailand; Viet Nam
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:48
Number of Locations:5
Lower elevation limit (metres):300
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population size is unknown but the trend is decreasing.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:In China it grows in rocky and humus-rich places or crevices of rocks in forests or thickets at an elevation between 300 – 1,200 m asl (Liu et al. 2009). In Thailand and Indochina this species grows as a terrestrial herb in deep leaf litter and on mossy boulders in shady places of forest (Cribb 1998). In Hainan it grows on sandstone mountains and flat expanses of original eroded plateau of southwest Hainan Island at 1,500 – 2,000 feet asl (Cribb 1998).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):7-8

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Paphiopedilum appletonianum is an ornamental plant, collected for commercial use for horticulture, national and international trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Paphiopedilum appletonianum is under numerous threats especially ruthless collection for regional and international trade, exploitation for horticultural purposes, habitat degradation, human disturbance and trampling.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: All Paphiopedilum species are listed under Appendix I of CITES. All Paphiopedilum species in India are also protected by Wildlife Protection Act of India under Schedule VI and hence illegal collection and propagation is banned, but this law and the enforcement agencies are not as strict (GoI 2002). Paphiopedilum appletonianum  is not well studied and hence there is a need to understand its ecology and pollination biology to safeguard the existing population. To stop illegal trade the law enforcement agencies need to be more strict. Additionally, the following actions are recommended:
  • Cultivated specimens should be used in the trade and market supply instead of wild plants.
  • Protection of the habitat, especially from collection, trampling and logging.
  • Ex situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.
  • Monitoring and surveillance of the existing subpopulations and sites.
  • Estimate the subpopulation sizes and study their dynamics.

Citation: Rankou, H. & Kumar, P. 2015. Paphiopedilum appletonianum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T43320105A43327774. . Downloaded on 22 July 2018.
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