|Scientific Name:||Microtus longicaudus|
|Species Authority:||(Merriam, 1888)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Subspecies coronarius previously was (and by some recent authors still is) regarded as a distinct species; it was recognized as a subspecies or synonym of M. longicaudus by Jones et al. (1992), Baker et al. (2003), and Musser and Carleton (in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005). Extensive karyotypic and molecular variation suggests the need for further taxonomic investigation (Musser and Carleton).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.)|
|Reviewer(s):||Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Chanson, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern because it is very widespread, common, somewhat adaptable and occurs in several protected areas.
|Range Description:||This species occurs in western North America; from east-central Alaska (United States), south through western Canada and the western United States to southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico, and east to Colorado. Populations at the eastern and southern edges of its range are generally restricted to high elevations in isolated mountains. The elevational range is from sea level up to at least 3,650 m asl.|
Native:Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Northwest Territories, Yukon); United States (Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is considered secure within its range (NatureServe). Populations fluctuate dramatically. Population densities are usually relatively low (typically 5-16 per hectare) but may build up to 40 or more per hectare (Jones et al. 1983).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It is found in various habitats ranging from dense coniferous forests to rocky alpine tundra, sagebrush semidesert, moist meadows, marshes, along rivers and streams and forest-edge habitat. It frequently occurs in disturbed areas, such as clear-cuts, surface mines, and those that have been fire-impacted. It usually does not make well-defined runways.
Breeds mid-May to mid-September in Alaska and Idaho, May-October in Nevada (mostly June-July). In Alberta females will have one to four litters per year (average two). In Alaska, females will have a maximum of two litters during a lifetime. Litter size is an average of four in Alberta, and five in Alaska (Smolen and Keller 1987). Young of year breed in Alberta, not in Alaska.
These voles seldom live more than one year. They may be displaced by the more aggressive M. montanus (Smolen and Keller 1987). Diet includes green vegetation, seeds, berries, and fungi. In winter they may feed on inner bark of shrubs and trees. They are active throughout the year. Most observed activity in Alaska was nocturnal (Smolen and Keller 1987).
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is not of conservation concern and it occurs in several protected areas within its range.|
|Citation:||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.) 2008. Microtus longicaudus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 January 2015.|
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