|Scientific Name:||Myodes gapperi|
|Species Authority:||(Vigors, 1830)|
Clethrionomys gapperi subspecies solus Hall & Cockrum, 1952 [orth. error]
|Taxonomic Notes:||Includes subspecies occidentalis and caurinus, which previously were included in the species now known as Myodes californicus. Some authors have suggested that rutilis and gapperi are conspecific, but this has not been accepted by most authorities (Jones et al. 1992; Musser and Carleton, in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.)|
|Reviewer(s):||Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Chanson, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern because it is widespread, common, and there are no major threats.
|Range Description:||This species is widely distributed in North America in forests of the Hudsonian and Canadian life zones. In the west, from British Columbia, Canada, south to Columbia River and in the Rocky Mountains south to southwestern Arizona and New Mexico in the United States. It ranges across Canada and southward in the mid-west to the northern Great Plains and in the east through the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia.|
Native:Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland I, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward I., Québec, Saskatchewan); United States (Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common and widespread (NatureServe). Density estimates range from 0 to 65/ha, depending on season and location.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Southern red-backed voles inhabit mesic areas in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed forests, with ground cover that includes stumps and logs. Mossy logs and tree roots in coniferous forests are optimal. Also found in muskegs, sedge marshes, mesic prairies, tundra and shrub habitats, and bogs within spruce and fir. Colonize clearcuttings in mesic habitats. Found on rock outcrops in some areas (e.g., Virginia). Often associated with abandoned stone walls (fences) in the northeastern United States. In Pennsylvania, abundance increased with forest fragmentation (Yahner 1992). Regarded as an ecological indicator of old-growth conditions in the Rocky Mountains. Also uses second-growth areas.
They nest under logs, stumps and roots and will use the burrows of moles and other small mammals. Breeds mid-January to late November; peak activity February-October. Gestation lasts 17-19 days. Litters size is one to nine (average 5.6 in Alberta, 6.5 in Colorado). Litters per year: one to four for young females, one to six for older females in Alberta; two per year in Colorado (young of year breed).
Home range varies from 0.25 to 3.5 acres (Merritt and Merritt 1978). Experimentation by Gillis and Nams (1998) suggests that populations separated by an inter-patch distance of 60-70 m would likely be isolated from one another. Mature females are territorial. Populations are noncyclic.
Southern red-backed voles feed chiefly on vegetation, seeds, nuts, fungi, some insects. Summer diet in Colorado (and much of western U.S.) consists almost entirely of fungi. They are mainly nocturnal, active year-long.
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is not of conservation concern and its range includes many protected areas.|
|Citation:||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.) 2008. Myodes gapperi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.|
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