|Scientific Name:||Thomomys townsendii|
|Species Authority:||(Bachman, 1839)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Limited hybridization with T. bottae occurs in northeastern California. Included in T. umbrinus by Hall (1981). Regarded as a distinct species by Jones et al. (1992), Baker et al. (2003), and Patton (in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005). Patton and Smith (1994) examined mtDNA and electrophoretic data for T. bottae and T. townsendii and found a variation pattern that made "strict adherence to any species concept in the objective recognition of evolutionary units within this complex...difficult at best."|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.)|
|Reviewer(s):||Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Chanson, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern because it has a reasonably large range, it is common, there are no major threats, and it occurs in a few protected areas.
|Range Description:||This species is distributed in disjunct patches in the western United States, in southeastern Oregon, southwestern Idaho, northern Nevada, and northeastern California.|
Native:United States (California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is apparently secure (NatureServe) and can be common in its range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species inhabits deep, moist, loamy, alkaline soils found in bottomlands of sagebrush habitats, as well as irrigated fields (Verts and Carraway, 2003). Also found in the deep soils of river valleys, or old lake beds; in areas with shadscale vegetation type (M. F. Smith, in Wilson and Ruff, 1999). It is primarily fossorial. Young are born in underground burrows. Adults may produce two or more litters per year, ranging from three to ten young per litter (Ingles, 1965). Gestation lasts approximately 19 days.
Pocket gophers are ecologically important as prey items and in influencing soils, microtopography, habitat heterogeneity, diversity of plant species, and primary productivity (Huntly and Inouye, 1988). Predators include owls, hawks, foxes, coyotes, etc. Diet includes roots, tubers, and some surface vegetation. Forages from underground burrow and may pull plants down through soil into burrow. Sometimes forages aboveground. Collects food in cheek pouches and carries it to underground storage areas.
|Major Threat(s):||There are no known threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is not of conservation concern and its range includes a few protected areas.|
|Citation:||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.) 2008. Thomomys townsendii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 December 2014.|
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