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Dacrycarpus dacrydioides

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA PINOPSIDA PINALES PODOCARPACEAE

Scientific Name: Dacrycarpus dacrydioides
Species Authority: (A.Rich.) de Laub.
Common Name(s):
English White Pine
Synonym(s):
Podocarpus dacryoides A.Rich.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-12-13
Assessor(s): Thomas, P.
Reviewer(s): Farjon, A.
Justification:
This species, and its main forest type, has undergone a significant decline over the last several centuries. However, the majority of this decline pre-dates the period of this assessment. In the absence of any current or ongoing decline an assessment of Least Concern is the most appropriate.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Widespread in New Zealand.
Countries:
Native:
New Zealand (North Is., South Is.)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population trend is for an increase.
Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This widespread species was a dominant emergent tree in lowland podocarp forests. Remnants of these forests are now virtually restricted to forest reserves on steeper terrain at altitudes up to 600 m a.s.l. These are mixed conifer-angiosperm forests with usually dominance of Agathis australis (only in the far north of New Zealand), and/or several of the 'podocarps' Dacrydium cupressinum, Podocarpus totara, P. cunninghamii, Prumnopitys taxifolia, P. ferruginea, Halocarpus bidwillii, Manoao colensoi, and Phyllocladus trichomanoides. Angiosperm trees in these forests are e.g. Beilschmiedia tarairi, Laurelia novae-zelandiae (in swampy places), Metrosideros robusta (which begins life as an epiphyte), and especially in South Island Nothofagus spp. Shrubs and tree ferns (Cyathea, Dicksonia) as well as epiphytes of many kinds can be abundant in these moist evergreen forests in a subtropical to warm temperate climate.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Extensively logged with other species and hardly distinguished in the timber trade from other 'podocarp' wood, White Pine (now preferably called by its Maori name Kahikatea) was an extremely valuable tree due to its potential size and the good qualities of podocarp wood. It was used for carpentry, flooring and panelling in houses, dry cooperage, tool handles, etc. Today this species enjoys near total protection and consequently its wood is no longer traded.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Past decline has undoubtedly occurred due to unrestricted logging and conversion of forest for agriculture. Quantifying this decline within the last three generations (ca. 90-100 years) is problematic. This species still occupies its original extent of occurrence and although the area of occupancy would have been reduced, its persistence within secondary forests and as fragments in agricultural landscapes (e.g. retention for stock shelter in dairy farming areas [Swale et al. 2005]) complicates any calculation of reduction. 'Lowland podocarp forests' underwent a major reduction associated with Polynesian expansion some 500-750 years ago and it is estimated that as much as 50% of the lowland forests were converted to more open vegetation (McGlone 1989). A second period of intensive change occurred following European settlement and expansion from the 1840s onwards. This reached its peak prior to World War One, which is effectively the start of the period relevant to this assessment: forest conversion subsequently slowed. Current indigenous 'forest' cover is estimated to be about 28% (Walker et al. 2005). As the majority of the forest conversion took place prior to the assessment period it cannot be considered. Fragmentation of forests remains a problem as do introduced weeds and animals such as possum and deer.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: As a native tree this species is now protected from logging under the laws of New Zealand. Several populations occur within protected areas, others are on private land. The distribution of protected forest areas more or less covers the extent of occurrrence as formerly occupied by this species. Natural regeneration is good where mature trees occur and is also complemented by revegetation initiatives: these measures will lead in future to an increase in area of occupancy and/or abundance.

Citation: Thomas, P. 2013. Dacrycarpus dacrydioides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 September 2014.
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