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Pinus yunnanensis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA PINOPSIDA PINALES PINACEAE

Scientific Name: Pinus yunnanensis
Species Authority: Franch.
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Yunnan Pine
Taxonomic Notes: This species resembles and hybridizes with Pinus tabuliformis, forming the hybrid taxon Pinus × densata Mast. Some authors have considered it a subspecies of P. kesyia (or a variety of P. insularis = P. kesiya var. langbianensis). It would require detailed genetic (DNA) analysis to establish the true relationships of these taxa, and it seems more appropriate to retain this taxon at species rank at present. A form with very long, drooping needles up to 30 cm long was named Pinus yunnanensis var. tenuifolia and reported to occur in Guangxi and Guizhou, China, at 400-1,200 m a.s.l. It is recognized as distinct in Flora of China 4: 15 (1999), but the characters stated to differentiate it from var. yunnanensis seem to be rather similar with those of the latter instead. Here, following Farjon (2010), var. tenuifolia is considered synonymous with P. yunnanensis var. yunnanensis.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-12-18
Assessor(s): Farjon, A., Christian, T. & Rushforth, K.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P.
Justification:
As this species is common and widespread, it is assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Recorded from SW China: S Sichuan, Yunnan, E Guizhou, and E Guangxi.
Countries:
Native:
China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Locally common.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Pinus yunnanensis grows from 400 m to 3,100 m a.s.l. in valleys and deep river gorges and on the high mountain slopes where it forms extensive forests. It is most abundant on dry and sunny slopes and it can locally reach to the tree line, forming an alpine shrub. It is adapted to survive on sites with infertile and shallow, rocky soils exposed to erosion. At high altitudes it can withstand severe frosts. It is most commonly gregarious in pure stands, but can be found growing with other pines, e.g. P. armandii, P. tabuliformis and P. kesiya, or with Keteleeria evelyniana, as well as with angiosperm trees and shrubs.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Yunnan Pine is of considerable economic importance in China, with natural stands covering between 5.5 and 6 million ha and 275,000 ha in plantations. Its wood is used for fuel, as round wood for transmission poles and stakes, as sawn timber for construction, both exterior and interior, for fences and gates, pallets, crates and boxes, cooperage and vats, furniture, veneers, all kinds of plywood and boards, tool handles, pulp for paper, and to make chemical products like plastics and cellulose derivatives. Resin is tapped for naval stores, in particular turpentine, and the bark is used to extract tannins. The leaves (needle litter) provide fodder for animals and are distilled for oils and medicinal products. This species is much planted for wind breaks and erosion control. It is common in China as an ornamental tree, but is not widely planted in other countries, where it is mostly seen in arboreta and other collections. It has a tendency to become invasive as it is an aggressive pioneer species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No specific threats have been identified for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Known from several protected areas and common in secondary forests.

Citation: Farjon, A., Christian, T. & Rushforth, K. 2013. Pinus yunnanensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 July 2014.
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