|Scientific Name:||Pinus ponderosa|
|Species Authority:||Douglas ex C.Lawson|
Pinus washoensis Mason & Stockw.
|Taxonomic Notes:||Ttwo varieties are recognized (Farjon 2010): the typical variety from British Columbia to southern California and var. scopulorum Engelm. from inland Rockies as far south as Mexico. Neither are threatened and are hence not assessed separately.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Stritch, L. & Thomas, P.|
Pinus ponderosa is one of the most common pines in the Rocky Mountains of the USA and is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Occurs in western North America, from southern British Columbia to just south of the Mexico-USA border.|
Native:Canada (British Columbia); Mexico (Coahuila, Sonora); United States (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wyoming)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Very abundant throughout its range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Pinus ponderosa is one of the most widely distributed pines, with a range spanning 20 degrees of latitude and from the lowlands to 3,300 m a.s.l. While in the north and east its limits are defined by temperature and rainfall respectively, in the south it is replaced by related species. The lower limit of average annual precipitation is around 300 mm, the upper limit 1750 mm. It grows on soils derived from many rock types, both acidic and basic varying from around pH 5 to pH 9, and usually with a capacity to retain moisture but well drained. Its great altitudinal range as well as geographic spread causes huge variations in temperature, both summer and winter, but to thrive and compete well it requires ample sunshine in the growing season. Pinus ponderosa is the first tall pine to appear above Pinyon-Juniper woodland in the interior of the western USA, but it is a seral species in the mesic mixed conifer forests of the Cascades and Sierra Nevada, where other conifers will eventually dominate. It grows with numerous other conifers (for listings see under P. monticola and P. jeffreyi) in these mountain ranges. Its relatively high tolerance of fire assures it a place in the succession in natural forests, but selective logging as well as fire prevention have altered the forest composition to the disadvantage of P. ponderosa in many managed forests|
|Major Threat(s):||Selective logging, as well as fire prevention, have altered the forest composition to the disadvantage of Pinus ponderosa in many managed forests.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species occurs within several protected areas, but the vast majority of trees are on public and private lands where forests are exploited.|
|Citation:||Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus ponderosa. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 08 March 2014.|
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