Pinus pinaster


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Pinus pinaster
Species Authority: Aiton
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name/s:
English Maritime Pine
French Pin maritime, Pin des landes, Pinastre
Spanish Pino Gallego, Pino Resinero
Taxonomic Notes: Three subspecies of Pinus pinaster Aiton are recognized (Farjon 2010). The typical subspecies (P. pinaster subsp. pinaster) occurs in France, Spain and Portugal. Its natural distribution within these areas is uncertain due to its long history of cultivation. Pinus pinaster subsp. escarena (Risso) K. Richt has a fragmented distribution, partly on the West Mediterranean coast, and partly further inland especially in Spain, where it merges with subsp. pinaster further northwest. The third subspecies, P. pinaster subsp. renoui (Villar) Maire, is very rare and known from only two widely separated populations on the African Mediterranean coast, the largest being in Morocco. This subspecies has been assessed separately as Endangered due to its restricted distribution, deforestation and habitat degradation. The other two subspecies, and the species as a whole, are regarded as Least Concern as their subpopulations are not in overall decline and are increasing in many areas.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-08-15
Assessor/s: Farjon, A.
Reviewer/s: Thomas, P. & Luscombe, D
In many parts of its European range, Pinus pinaster is on the increase. This is partly due to naturalization from extensive plantations within its natural range. Within its range in North Africa, many subpopulations are in decline and P. pinaster subsp. renoui has been assessed as Endangered. However, as the North African subpopulations constitute a relatively small proportion of the global population, the overall assessment for the species is Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Occurs in southwest and southern Europe and in North Africa in Morocco, and along the border between Algeria and Tunisia.
Algeria; France (Corsica); Gibraltar; Italy (Sardegna, Sicilia); Monaco; Morocco; Portugal; Spain (Baleares); Tunisia
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: A widespread and common species which is increasing in abundance.
Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Pinus pinaster is mainly a pine of low-lying, coastal plains, usually on sandy soils of sea shore dunes and flats; however, in Morocco this species extends into the mountains to an elevation of ca. 2,000 m. Extensive planting, e.g. in sand dunes, for centuries has established this species in areas where it may not have occurred naturally but where it has subsequently often been naturalized. It forms tall pine forests and if with a more or less open canopy the understorey is of evergreen maquis shrubs. This species is frost sensitive, which is probably a reason why only in the far south of its range it ascends into the mountains. In Morocco it is a constituent of mixed coniferous forest with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii, Abies pinsapo var. marocana, Cedrus atlantica, and Taxus baccata. Common angiosperm trees in this forest type are Quercus ilex and at the higher altitudes Populus tremula.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Residential, urban, industrial and tourism related developments in coastal areas has reduced the available habitat for this species. However, this decline is more than offset by its expansion in other areas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in several protected areas, but has also been planted extensively within and without its natural range (it is a serious pest in the Cape Region of South Africa).
Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus pinaster. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <>. Downloaded on 24 April 2014.
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