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Pinus pinaster

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA PINOPSIDA PINALES PINACEAE

Scientific Name: Pinus pinaster
Species Authority: Aiton
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Maritime Pine
French Pin maritime, Pin des landes, Pinastre
Spanish Pino Gallego, Pino Resinero
Taxonomic Notes: Three subspecies of Pinus pinaster Aiton are recognized (Farjon 2010). The typical subspecies (P. pinaster subsp. pinaster) occurs in France, Spain and Portugal. Its natural distribution within these areas is uncertain due to its long history of cultivation. Pinus pinaster subsp. escarena (Risso) K. Richt has a fragmented distribution, partly on the West Mediterranean coast, and partly further inland especially in Spain, where it merges with subsp. pinaster further northwest. The third subspecies, P. pinaster subsp. renoui (Villar) Maire, is very rare and known from only two widely separated populations on the African Mediterranean coast, the largest being in Morocco. This subspecies has been assessed separately as Endangered due to its restricted distribution, deforestation and habitat degradation. The other two subspecies, and the species as a whole, are regarded as Least Concern as their subpopulations are not in overall decline and are increasing in many areas.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-08-15
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Luscombe, D
Justification:
In many parts of its European range, Pinus pinaster is on the increase. This is partly due to naturalization from extensive plantations within its natural range. Within its range in North Africa, many subpopulations are in decline and P. pinaster subsp. renoui has been assessed as Endangered. However, as the North African subpopulations constitute a relatively small proportion of the global population, the overall assessment for the species is Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Occurs in southwest and southern Europe and in North Africa in Morocco, and along the border between Algeria and Tunisia.
Countries:
Native:
Algeria; France (Corsica); Gibraltar; Italy (Sardegna, Sicilia); Monaco; Morocco; Portugal; Spain (Baleares); Tunisia
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: A widespread and common species which is increasing in abundance.
Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Pinus pinaster is mainly a pine of low-lying, coastal plains, usually on sandy soils of sea shore dunes and flats; however, in Morocco this species extends into the mountains to an elevation of ca. 2,000 m. Extensive planting, e.g. in sand dunes, for centuries has established this species in areas where it may not have occurred naturally but where it has subsequently often been naturalized. It forms tall pine forests and if with a more or less open canopy the understorey is of evergreen maquis shrubs. This species is frost sensitive, which is probably a reason why only in the far south of its range it ascends into the mountains. In Morocco it is a constituent of mixed coniferous forest with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii, Abies pinsapo var. marocana, Cedrus atlantica, and Taxus baccata. Common angiosperm trees in this forest type are Quercus ilex and at the higher altitudes Populus tremula.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Maritime Pine is an important timber tree as well as Europe's major source of turpentine since the 16th century. It has been planted to stabilize dunes in coastal areas within as well as far outside its natural range where frost is a minimal risk due to the maritime influence on the microclimate. The region Les Landes in SW France is one of the principal areas where this pine has been planted for forestry purposes, including resin tapping. Another centre for resin production is Corsica. It has also been planted on a forestry scale in many parts of the Mediterranean region and in South Africa, where it has become one of the invasive species of pine as a result. The wood is of coarse grain and very resinous. It is (or was) used for mining pit props, construction, telephone poles and posts for fencing, boat-building, and furniture. Smaller sized logs with many knots or blemishes are usually chipped or pulped for particleboard and paper. The large volume of bark per unit of wood makes this a pine suitable for production of mulch. Resin is extracted by tapping as well as distillation of bark and wood pulp, and used to produce turpentine, pitch, oils, varnishes, waxes and soap.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Residential, urban, industrial and tourism related developments in coastal areas has reduced the available habitat for this species. However, this decline is more than offset by its expansion in other areas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in several protected areas, but has also been planted extensively within and without its natural range (it is a serious pest in the Cape Region of South Africa).

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus pinaster. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 September 2014.
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