Pinus oocarpa 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schltdl.
Common Name(s):
English Egg-cone Pine
Spanish Ocote, Ocote Chino, Pino Albellano, Pino Blanco, Pino Chino, Pino Colorado, Pino Trompillo
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
Taxonomic Notes: Pinus oocarpa var. trifoliata, as recognized by Farjon and Styles (1997), has more recently been elevated to species rank as Pinus luzmariae, which is accepted here. Hence P. oocarpa as here treated has no named varieties.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-06-21
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Perez de la Rosa, J.

Despite the inferred decline due to levels of exploitation, the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of this species are huge and it meets no criteria for any category of threat. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Recorded from Mexico: from the Sierra Madre Occidental SE to Mesoamerica, in S Sonora, Sinaloa, SW Durango, Nayarit, S Zacatecas, Jalisco, Michoacán, México, Distrito Federal, Hidalgo, N Puebla, Morelos, Tlaxcala, Guerrero, Oaxaca, S Veracruz and Chiapas; is widespread in the highlands of Guatemala; Honduras; El Salvador and NW Nicaragua.
Countries occurrence:
El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):200
Upper elevation limit (metres):2700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The overall population trend is uncertain.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species extends over a NW-SE distance of ca. 3,000 km and consequently is found under very different ecological conditions. This is expressed in its altitudinal range, from (200)500-2,300(-2,700) m a.s.l., and in the variation of annual precipitation, from 700-3,000 mm. Seasonality is mainly expressed in a (long) dry season from October to June in much of its range. Nearly everywhere, fire is an integral part of the ecosystem, but man-made fires, often deliberate, add substantially to the frequency with which they occur. Pinus oocarpa has semi-serotinous cones and is adapted to fire, at least at natural frequencies. It occurs in usually open woodland or forest, often in pure stands or as a constituent of pine-oak woodland. Other pines commonly associated with it are P. engelmannii, P. leiophylla and P. douglasiana in the NW and P. maximinoi, P. devoniana and P. tecunumanii to the SE. If fires are less frequent, there can be an understorey of shrubs with, e.g. Calliandra, Acacia, Leucaena, Hybosema, Byrsonima, and Leucothoe, but often the burning favours Pteridium aquilinum or grasses.
Generation Length (years):40

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Throughout its range, Pinus oocarpa is an important timber tree, especially for local and regional markets. The wood is of better quality than that of P. caribaea, it is stronger and less resinous. It is much used for sawn timber, especially applied to light construction like carpentry and joinery and floors in houses. Coarser uses are railway sleepers and beams or transmission poles. The species is also widely tapped for resin, but only for a few years before felling. This species has been introduced to many subtropical and tropical countries as a plantation forestry tree, it is perhaps most successful in West Africa, South Africa, and in Brazil, Colombia and Argentina. In horticulture it is very rare and limited to a few botanic gardens and other tree collections in countries with warm climates.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The greatly increased frequency of fires, often deliberately ignited, poses a serious threat to the development of mature stands of this pine. The problem is especially poignant in Mesoamerica, where both fires and infestations by the pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus mexicanus) are frequently followed by 'lumber salvation operations' and subsequent conversion into pasture (Perry 1991). Despite this, the species is very widespread and numerous in many areas, so it does not meet any of the criteria to be listed as a threatened species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in several protected areas in various countries.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus oocarpa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42387A2976957. . Downloaded on 20 September 2018.
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