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Pinus montezumae

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA PINOPSIDA PINALES PINACEAE

Scientific Name: Pinus montezumae
Species Authority: Lamb.
Common Name(s):
English Montezuma Pine, Rough-branched Mexican Pine
Spanish Ocote Blanco, Pino de Montezuma, Pino Real
Taxonomic Notes: Two varieties are recognized: the typical widespread variety occurs throughout the range of the species while var. gordoniana (Hartw. ex Gordon) Silba has a more limited distribution within southern Mexico. It is usually sympatric with var. montezumae. Neither variety is threatened.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-06-15
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Perez de la Rosa, J.
Justification:

This very widespread and common species does not meet any of the criteria for listing as threatened, despite its exploitation for timber in much of its range. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern. Both of its constituent varieties are also Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Recorded from Mexico: Nuevo León, SW Tamaulipas, Nayarit, S Zacatecas, Jalisco, Michoacán, México, Distrito Federal, Querétaro, Hidalgo, Morelos, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Central Veracruz, Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas; and in Guatemala in the highland departments.
Countries:
Native:
Guatemala; Mexico (Chiapas, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México Distrito Federal, México State, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Locally very common.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Pinus montezumae occurs in a wide range of edaphic and climatic conditions throughout the mountainous regions of Central and S Mexico and the Guatemalan highlands. In Nuevo León it reaches from semi-arid Pinyon-Juniper woodland up to cold temperate mixed conifer forest. Its altitudinal range is also great, from (1200-)2,000-3,200(-3500) m overall, with occurrences below 2,000 m mainly in Nayarit, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas. It is most abundant and best developed in the temperate zone at ca. 2,400-2,800 m a.s.l., with annual precipitation exceeding 800 mm, most of it falling from June through September. Throughout its wide geographical range, it occurs together with many other tree species, mainly in pine-oak and mixed pine forests, but also with Abies religiosa, A. guatemalensis and Cupressus lusitanica. Many of these forests have been depleted or even turned into small scale farms with groups of scattered trees, among which P. montezumae is often present. Phenology: the time of pollen dispersal appears to be March-April (material from Oaxaca and Veracruz).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Pinus montezumae is exploited as a timber tree throughout its range. The timber is heavy and strong and in demand for constructional purposes, plywood, parquet flooring, and furniture. Together with the wood of other pines it is pulped for the paper industry. Locally, especially in the southern part of its range, this (and other) species, growing often near habitations among fields as remnants of more contiguous forests, has its branches cut off due to the incessant demand of firewood of the rural population. Since pines rarely regenerate (only one Mexican species is known to do so) and none can be coppiced or pollarded indefinitely, this use will be detrimental and lead to the demise of the trees. Pinus montezumae is a very handsome pine grown in horticulture for large gardens and parks; it is moderately hardy depending on provenance.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Over-exploitation for its timber is a localized threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in numerous protected areas as well as in regenerating secondary forests.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus montezumae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 November 2014.
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