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Pinus monophylla

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA PINOPSIDA PINALES PINACEAE

Scientific Name: Pinus monophylla
Species Authority: Torr. & Frém.
Common Name(s):
English Single Leaf Pinyon Pine, One-leaved Nut Pine
Synonym(s):
Pinus californiarum D.K.Bailey
Taxonomic Notes: The recent segregate species P. californiarum D.K.Bailey (1987) proposed for the southern California and Baja California populations but based on inconsistent or continuous character states (Farjon and Styles, 1997: 251) is not recognized here. All more or less consistently single-leaved Pinyon pines of the US and Mexico are treated as P. monophylla following Farjon (2010).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-03-25
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Stritch, L.
Justification:

Pinus monophylla's great extent of occurrence is far beyond any threshold for a threatened category. The area of occupancy might be more limited as it can be sparse in some areas, but it is abundant in other locations. As there is no evidence of substantial decline, an assessment of Least Concern is warranted.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Recorded from USA (Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, western Colorado, southwestern New Mexico) and Mexico (Baja California Norte).
Countries:
Native:
Mexico (Baja California); United States (Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The overall population trend is thought to be stable.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species of Pinyon is common on the dry mountain slopes of the Great Basin. It is the major component of the extensive Pinyon-Juniper woodland in this area; the most common juniper is Juniperus osteosperma, in the NW replaced by J. occidentalis. At higher altitudes P. ponderosa can be mixed in as an indicator of the transition to tall pine forests; in the White Mountains of California P. monophylla has been found with P. longaeva at 3,000 m. Its altitudinal range is from 950 m to 3,000 m a.s.l. The undergrowth is dominated by sagebrush (Seriphidium spp. [Artemisia]) and numerous other xerophytic shrubs are common. In southern California and Baja California, P. monophylla is locally common in, or just above, a high chaparral zone but does not form extensive Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Other common pines here are P. quadrifolia and P. jeffreyi, the latter species extending to higher altitude. Juniperus californica and Quercus turbinella commonly occur with it in areas with granite rock outcrops and on steep slopes. Annual precipitation is low to moderate from 200-600 mm, highly variable, in California concentrated in the winter and part of it as snow at higher altitudes. Severe frost can occur in the Great Basin, which has a continental climate.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Due to its irregular shape and slow growth, this tree is not used for lumber; locally it is used as firewood. The edible seeds are locally harvested and sold on village markets or alongside the highways. In countries with hot summers this would be an excellent small pine for amenity planting, but it is little used and only present in a few collections. In the USA, where pines are grown for Christmas trees, it can be put to this use, but it is slow growing and needs much clipping to attain the desirable shape.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is very widespread in the semi-arid southwest of the USA and in adjacent Baja California. It has been locally subject to forest clearing in attempts to improve grazing land for cattle, but much less than its relative P. edulis, which occurs in cooler regions to the east and northeast. Livestock grazing can reduce the chances of regeneration, but the era of heavy overgrazing, at least in the USA, is now largely a thing of the past. Some decline related to drought and outbreaks of bark beetles (Ips spp.) has been reported (Greenwood and Reisberg 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in several protected areas and much of its population is on Federal land, where it is less likely to be grubbed up for “range improvement” than it is on privately owned land.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus monophylla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 September 2014.
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