Pinus leiophylla 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Pinus leiophylla Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham.
Common Name(s):
English Smooth-leaved Pine, Chihuahua Pine
Spanish Palo Otomite, Pino Chino
Pinus chihuahuana Engelm.
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
Taxonomic Notes: Two varieties are recognized: the typical variety and var. chihuahuana (Engelm.) Shaw. This variety extends into the southwest of the U.S.A. Neither variety is assessed as threatened.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-06-13
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Perez de la Rosa, J.

Pinus leiophylla has a very wide distribution, mainly in Mexico but extending into the SW USA (var. chihuahuana) and is common in many areas. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Recorded from SW USA: SE Arizona, SW New Mexico;and  in Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental, the "Eje Volcánico Transversal" and in the Sierra Madre del Sur as far SE as the highlands of central Oaxaca.
Countries occurrence:
Mexico; United States (Arizona, New Mexico)
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):1500
Upper elevation limit (metres):3300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Widespread and common.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Pinus leiophylla var. leiophylla is a widespread constituent of montane to high montane pine and pine-oak forests on deep, well drained soils derived from various, but usually volcanic or metamorphic rock. Its altitudinal range is (1,500-)1,900-2,900(-3,300) m a.s.l., gradually increasing from north to south. It occurs most frequently with Quercus spp. and/or with Pinus patula, P. pringlei, P. teocote, P. lawsonii, P. pseudostrobus, P. montezumae, P. douglasiana, P. durangensis, and at lower altitudes P. oocarpa. In the NW of its range P. arizonica, P. engelmannii and P. leiophylla var. chihuahuana grow commonly with it. Locally, Juniperus spp. or Cupressus lusitanica are found with it. Annual precipitation varies greatly with locality and altitude, from a low of ca. 700 mm to 1,950 mm. In the north and at high altitudes, frost and snow are common in winter. It is one of the few pines with a capacity to coppice. The seed cones take three seasons to mature, which is exceptional in pines. Although largely sympatric with var. leiophylla, the altitudinal range of var. chihuahuana is narrower: 1,500-2,700(-2,950) m, but this is in part due to the fact that it does not occur on some of the high volcanos of central Mexico. In the Sierra Madre Occidental its lower limit usually is below the level of var. leiophylla. Here it may be found in semi-arid habitat with P. cembroides, Juniperus spp. and xerophytes like Opuntia and Arctostaphylos. Higher up, its habitat is similar to that described above. Its poor growth in some areas is related to lower precipitation and rocky, poor, shallow soils especially at lower and middle altitudes.
Generation Length (years):40

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Along with many other species of pine in the Sierra Madre Occidental, Pinus leiophylla has been heavily exploited for timber in the latter half of the 20th century. Due to its high resin content it does not provide high quality wood but at the same time is a producer of good resin, for which it is tapped. The wood is used in heavy construction and for crates and boxes. The variety chihuahuana is less exploited for timber, but an equally prolific producer of resin. Smooth-leaved Pine has been planted in various parts of the world, especially in Africa, as a plantation forestry tree.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): While logging will have affected the species in parts of its range this is not a significant threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Found in protected areas across its wide range.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus leiophylla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42376A2976226. . Downloaded on 17 October 2017.
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