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Pinus kesiya

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA PINOPSIDA PINALES PINACEAE

Scientific Name: Pinus kesiya
Species Authority: Royle ex Gordon
Common Name(s):
English Khasia Pine, Khasi Pine, Benguet Pine, Luzon Pine
Synonym(s):
Pinus insularis Endl.
Taxonomic Notes: Two varieties are recognized. The non-typical variety (var. langbianensis (A.Chev.) Gaussen ex N.-S.Bui) co-occurs with the typical variety throughout P. kesiya's range. Neither variety is threatened.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-01-31
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Luscombe, D & Thomas, P.
Justification:
Pinus kesiya and its two varieties are assessed as Least Concern as there is no range wide decline and it is increasing in some parts of its range due to changes in land-use and management.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Widely distributed in south and southeast Asia occurring in China: Yunnan, extreme SE Xizang [Tibet], S Sichuan; NE India: Assam; Myanmar; Lao PDR; Thailand; Cambodia; Viet Nam; and the Philippines (Luzon). A widespread species whose extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are well beyond the thresholds for a threatened category. In Cambodia it is only known from a single stand (Thomas et al. 2007)
Countries:
Native:
China (Yunnan); India (Meghalaya); Malaysia; Philippines
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Locally common and stable.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Pinus kesiya occurs in pine savannas, pure stands with nearly closed canopy, and mixed pine-broad-leaved forests in valleys with e.g. Quercus serrata and Alnus nepalensis along streams. It occupies drier sites in NE India, Myanmar and Thailand, at altitudes generally between 800 and 1,500 m a.s.l., occasionally to 2,000 m. Further east, in Lao PDR, Viet Nam and on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, its altitudinal range is greater and it is found up to 2,700-3,000 m a.s.l. in a much wetter climate. In Lao PDR it grows in pure stands or mixed with Pinus merkusii (Paek Sorng Bai) and Keteleeria evelyniana (Hing). Angiosperm associates includes Schima wallichii, Quercus serrata and Quercus griffithii. Despite the wetter climate fires are frequent, creating an open, grass-dominated woodland or savanna with scattered stands of pines or solitary trees. The soils are usually sandy or loamy and derived from sandstone or quarzite. Pinus kesiya is often a pioneer in deforested secondary vegetation, especially if fire has been a factor in the disturbance.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Khasia Pine is an important timber tree in much of SE Asia and has been planted as a forestry tree in many countries in Africa, South America and Oceania (including Australia). It is a quickly establishing and fast growing species and as a result its most common use is for pulpwood in the paper industry (class A Kraft paper). In India charcoal burning has been important but has much declined. Other wood uses are roundwood (poles), construction timber, floorboards, plywood, and furniture. It is a tropical pine, but it does not grow well in the hot and humid lowland tropics; it clearly needs seasonality of precipitation. In the Philippines coffee plantations are often established under natural stands of Khasia Pine. The resin is of high quality, but the trees of this species do not yield it freely and therefore they are not tapped on a large economic scale. In horticulture its use is limited to a few arboreta and botanic gardens, but in the Philippines it is cultivated as a Christmas tree.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In some parts of its range, repeated burning and over grazing is reducing regeneration and possibly its area of occupancy. In other parts of its range P. kesiya forests are heavily modified for wood production or for crops such as coffee.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Pinus kesiya is present in many protected areas within its range countries. Outside of protected areas, pine dominated forests are often managed in ways that maintain the presence of this species.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus kesiya. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 September 2014.
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