|Scientific Name:||Pinus kesiya|
|Species Authority:||Royle ex Gordon|
Pinus insularis Endl.
|Taxonomic Notes:||Two varieties are recognized. The non-typical variety (var. langbianensis (A.Chev.) Gaussen ex N.-S.Bui) co-occurs with the typical variety throughout P. kesiya's range. Neither variety is threatened.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Luscombe, D & Thomas, P.|
Pinus kesiya and its two varieties are assessed as Least Concern as there is no range wide decline and it is increasing in some parts of its range due to changes in land-use and management.
|Range Description:||Widely distributed in south and southeast Asia occurring in China: Yunnan, extreme SE Xizang [Tibet], S Sichuan; NE India: Assam; Myanmar; Lao PDR; Thailand; Cambodia; Viet Nam; and the Philippines (Luzon). A widespread species whose extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are well beyond the thresholds for a threatened category. In Cambodia it is only known from a single stand (Thomas et al. 2007)|
Native:China (Yunnan); India (Meghalaya); Malaysia; Philippines
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Locally common and stable.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Pinus kesiya occurs in pine savannas, pure stands with nearly closed canopy, and mixed pine-broad-leaved forests in valleys with e.g. Quercus serrata and Alnus nepalensis along streams. It occupies drier sites in NE India, Myanmar and Thailand, at altitudes generally between 800 and 1,500 m a.s.l., occasionally to 2,000 m. Further east, in Lao PDR, Viet Nam and on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, its altitudinal range is greater and it is found up to 2,700-3,000 m a.s.l. in a much wetter climate. In Lao PDR it grows in pure stands or mixed with Pinus merkusii (Paek Sorng Bai) and Keteleeria evelyniana (Hing). Angiosperm associates includes Schima wallichii, Quercus serrata and Quercus griffithii. Despite the wetter climate fires are frequent, creating an open, grass-dominated woodland or savanna with scattered stands of pines or solitary trees. The soils are usually sandy or loamy and derived from sandstone or quarzite. Pinus kesiya is often a pioneer in deforested secondary vegetation, especially if fire has been a factor in the disturbance.|
|Major Threat(s):||In some parts of its range, repeated burning and over grazing is reducing regeneration and possibly its area of occupancy. In other parts of its range P. kesiya forests are heavily modified for wood production or for crops such as coffee.|
|Conservation Actions:||Pinus kesiya is present in many protected areas within its range countries. Outside of protected areas, pine dominated forests are often managed in ways that maintain the presence of this species.|
|Citation:||Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus kesiya. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 December 2013.|
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