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Pinus jeffreyi

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA PINOPSIDA PINALES PINACEAE

Scientific Name: Pinus jeffreyi
Species Authority: Balf.
Common Name(s):
English Jeffrey Pine, Jeffrey's Pine
Taxonomic Notes: Pinus jeffreyi is closely related to P. ponderosa and P. coulteri and introgression via pollen may occasionally occur where these species occur together

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-03-25
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Stritch, L.
Justification:
Jeffrey Pine is very widespread and abundant and regenerates well after disturbance events, including logging. A potential threat to play a role in future reduction of subpopulations near urban centres is air pollution. However, no direct links between local die back and air pollution have yet been recorded; often other pathogens or fire are involved. For the present therefore this species should be classified as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Found in USA: California, western Nevada, southern Oregon; and Mexico: Baja California Norte.
Countries:
Native:
Mexico (Baja California); United States (California, Nevada, Oregon)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The overall population trend is thought to be stable.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Pinus jeffreyi is a montane to subalpine species largely confined to the mountains of California, with an altitudinal range of (50-)300 m to 3,050 m a.s.l. It is tolerant of low temperatures in winter and can grow on thin soil or even in crevices of bare granite rock. In the Sierra Nevada of California the species, with its close relative P. ponderosa, is characteristic of open, dry and summer-warm mixed forests of the 'Yellow pine belt' where it tends to occupy the upper zone towards the tree line. In the southern part of this mountain range it occurs in diverse mixed coniferous forest with e.g. Pinus ponderosa, P. lambertiana, P. monticola, P. contorta, Abies concolor, A. magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Juniperus occidentalis, and Sequoiadendron giganteum. In southern California and Baja California only Abies concolor, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus contorta, and P. lambertiana accompany P. jeffreyi. In the Klamath Mountains of Oregon P. jeffreyi occurs on thin ultramafic soils of volcanic origin (peridotites and serpentine) which are poor in nutrients; on these soils its most common associate is Calocedrus decurrens. Here it descends to low elevations (around 100 m), while in the Sierra Nevada it ascends to 2,900 m and in the Sierra San Pedro Martír of Baja California to 3,050 m
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Jeffrey Pine is very similar to Ponderosa Pine in its wood properties and is consequently an important timber tree. It has a 'preference' for poorer sites and higher altitudes, and consequently grows slower than Ponderosa Pine in its natural habitat, but it grows as fast or faster in plantations. The timber industry does not differentiate the wood from the two species; details are therefore given under P. ponderosa. The resin of P. jeffreyi contains much heptane and lower levels of terpenes than found in other pines; in the past this biochemical product was distilled and used as an additive to raise the octane levels of petrol (gasoline), as well as for medicinal applications. Jeffrey Pine is not uncommon in cultivation, but it is mostly restricted to large parks and gardens with tree collections (arboreta). In forestry, crosses and back-crosses have been experimented with a number of related pines, in particular P. coulteri and P. ponderosa and its varieties

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is, naturally, susceptible to numerous diseases and pests, as well as fire. These agents may cause dieback or even stand removing reductions of subpopulations, but under natural conditions regeneration would replace the losses. A regional threat in the mountains near large urban centres, especially Los Angeles, is air pollution (ozone in particular), which if not killing the trees may weaken them and so become more prone to attacks from pests. Air pollution is now a major problem in some of the famous national parks in the Sierra Nevada, where this species is abundant.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in many protected areas, among which are several famous national parks. Reducing air pollution from traffic densities in LA and elsewhere in urbanized California is probably the most urgent conservation measure to be taken for this and other conifers in the region.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus jeffreyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 August 2014.
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