|Scientific Name:||Picea mariana|
|Species Authority:||(Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.|
Abies mariana Mill.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Thomas, P. & Stritch, L.|
This spruce occurs across the North American continent in the boreal zone. Its wide distribution and large population size lead to an assessment of Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Occurs in Boreal North America: from Newfoundland and New Jersey to interior Alaska.|
Native:Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland I, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward I., Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon); United States (Alaska, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wisconsin)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Widespread and abundant.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Picea mariana occurs mostly in bogs or swamps and on permafrost sites ('muskeg'), at elevations between <150 m and 800 m a.s.l., occasionally in western mountains to 1,500 m or 1,800 m a.s.l., on a variety of acid soils, often on peat, in the south predominantly so. The climate is cold subhumid, but with a wide amplitude. Annual precipitation varies from 200 to 1,400 mm, the growing season from 25 to 160 days. Pure stands occur mostly on Sphagnum peat and on permafrost, elsewhere it is usually mixed with Picea glauca, Pinus banksiana and Abies balsamea; A. lasiocarpa and Pinus contorta in upland regions, and Populus tremuloides after fire. In the SE of its range Picea mariana occurs in a mixed conifer-angiosperm swamp type with Chamaecyparis thyoides, Larix laricina, Abies balsamea, Populus balsamifera, Acer rubrum, Ulmus americana, Fraxinus nigra, and other broad-leaved species.|
|Major Threat(s):||No threats have been identified for this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||Black Spruce occurs in many protected areas across its range.|
|Citation:||Farjon, A. 2013. Picea mariana. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 12 March 2014.|
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