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Picea alcoquiana

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA PINOPSIDA PINALES PINACEAE

Scientific Name: Picea alcoquiana
Species Authority: (Veitch ex Lindl.) Carrière
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Alcock's Spruce
Synonym(s):
Abies alcoquiana Veitch ex Lindl.
Taxonomic Notes: Three varieties are recognized; the relatively common typical variety, var. acicularis (Maxim. ex Beissn.) Fitschen from the Yatsugadake Mts and var. reflexa (Shiras) Fitschen from the Akaishi Range. These last two varieties have very limited distributions and population sizes.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-12-13
Assessor(s): Katsuki, T., Farjon, A. & Carter, G.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P.
Justification:
The species as a whole, like its most common and widespread nominate variety, does not meet the criteria for a threatened category, but may warrant listing as threatened if the decline due to logging continues. Although its area of occupancy has been reduced due to logging, this is not inferred to have exceeded 30% and it therefore does not meet the criteria (A2d) for a threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Endemic to central Honshu, Japan.
Countries:
Native:
Japan (Honshu)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is decreasing due to logging.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Picea alcoquiana is a scattered mountain species, occurring at elevations from 700 m to 2,180 m (var. acicularis between 1,200 m and 1,950 m) a.s.l. The soils are of volcanic origin and podzolic. The climate is cool, with cold, snowy winters, and wet (annual precipitation 1,000 mm to 2,500 mm), while typhoons are frequent. The forests on these mountains are mixed coniferous, with Picea jezoensis subsp. hondoensis as the most common of the spruces, Tsuga diversifolia and Larix kaempferi, both also common, Pinus parviflora and Abies veitchii in some areas, A. mariesii usually at higher elevations, and broad-leaved trees, e.g. Betula ermanii, B. grossa, Sorbus commixta, Quercus mongolica var. grosseserrata, Alnus hirsuta var. sibirica, and Prunus maximowiczii.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Alcock's Spruce is a timber tree of minor importance due to its scarcity, but it has undoubtedly been logged with other spruces (P. jezoensis subsp. hondoensis) and conifers. Much of its wood is processed to pulp for the paper industry, but more specialized uses are furniture making and (in Japan) musical instruments. This species has been introduced to Europe and the U.S.A. but remains uncommon there and mostly restricted to arboreta and some large parks of private estates, where it may still be known under the later name Picea bicolor.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat to the species, past and present, is logging. This has particularly affected the rarer varieties with their very limited extents of occurrence and areas of occupancy.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Some subpopulations occur in protected areas.

Citation: Katsuki, T., Farjon, A. & Carter, G. 2013. Picea alcoquiana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 October 2014.
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