Juniperus virginiana 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Cupressaceae

Scientific Name: Juniperus virginiana
Species Authority: L.
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Eastern Redcedar, Red Juniper, Red Cedar, Pencil Cedar
French Cèdre rouge, Savin
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-03-09
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Adams, R & Thomas, P.

This widespread species is increasing in abundance in many areas. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2003 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Occurs in eastern North America: from S Quebec to Florida, westward to North Dakota and Texas
Countries occurrence:
Canada (Ontario, Québec); United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin)
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Locally abundant and expanding due to fire control and abandonment of farm land.
Current Population Trend: Increasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: No
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species occurs in a wide range of habitats, from old, eroded sandstone or limestone plateaux covered in open pine or pine-oak woodland, or stream banks of clay or sand in the Midwest, to abandoned fields and road verges and stabilized sand dunes on the Atlantic coast. The altitudinal range is 1-1,000 m a.s.l. More details are given under the two varieties.
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: No
Generation Length (years): 30

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is used as an amenity tree in landscaping and as an ornamental. The wood is also exploited on a small scale for special purposes such as wood turning. In the past it was exploited extensively for the manufacture of pencils, but more recently that use has declined. From the leaves essential oils are extracted. Juniperus virginiana has been the source of numerous cultivars, many of which are still in the horticultural trade. It is similar in general appearance to J. chinensis and if they do not bear cones, e.g. because of the retaining of juvenile leaf types, and if the distinct leaf arrangement holds true in cultivars, juvenile leaves on lateral branchlets beyond the seedling stage of J. virginiana should be in pairs, not in threes. Scale leaves of J. virginiana are acute, ofJ. chinensis usually obtuse.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No specific threats have been identified for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is increasing and spreading into abandoned farmland, road verges and other open wasteland.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Juniperus virginiana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42257A2967510. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.
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