Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Cupressaceae

Scientific Name: Juniperus phoenicea
Species Authority: L.
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Phoenician Juniper
French Genévrier rouge
Cupressus devoniana Beissn.
Cupressus tetragona Humb. & Bonpl. ex Carrière
Juniperus bacciformis Carrière
Juniperus lycia L.
Juniperus malacocarpa Carrière
Juniperus myosuros Sénécl.
Juniperus myurus Beissn.
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-07-22
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Adams, R & Thomas, P.

Perhaps the most widespread and common juniper in the Mediterranean and therefore assessed as Least Concern..

Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Macaronesia: Canary Is., Madeira Is.; Mediterranean Region: Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt (Sinai), France, Greece, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey; Saudi Arabia (along Red Sea).
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Cyprus; Egypt; France (Corsica); Gibraltar; Greece (East Aegean Is., Kriti); Italy (Sardegna, Sicilia); Lebanon; Libya; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Portugal; Saudi Arabia; Spain (Baleares, Canary Is.); Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2400
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Very widespread and often common.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: No
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: In garrigue, maquis, or evergreen microphyllous woodland on dry, stony ground, limestone outcrops, or sand dunes at altitudes between 1 m and 2,400 m a.s.l. This species is commonly associated with Pinus halepensis, P. brutia, Quercus ilex, Pistacea lentiscus, Cistus spp., Olea europaea, Lavandula spp., Artemisia herba-alba, and numerous other genera. There is a predominance of limestone, but granitic rock, sandstone, serpentine, volcanic rock, as well as sand dunes are also mentioned as substrates. Soils are usually rocky or skeletal and it can grow well from crevices in bedrock. The climate is Mediterranean, with dry and hot summers
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: No
Generation Length (years): 25

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is rarely taken into cultivation in Mediterranean countries and only a few cultivars have been named of it. The wood is used in Algeria and Tunisia for construction, fence posts and firewood; in most other areas where it occurs it is of little economic value. The reddish and more or less succulent cones ('berries') can be used in cooking and alcoholic beverages. The subspecies turbinata forms a dense, prostrate shrub suitable in rock gardens and as a ground cover in regions where it is not likely to be in danger of damage by frost.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No specific threats have been identified for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in many protected areas.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Juniperus phoenicea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42244A2966061. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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