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Deania calcea

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA CHONDRICHTHYES SQUALIFORMES CENTROPHORIDAE

Scientific Name: Deania calcea
Species Authority: (Lowe, 1839)
Common Name(s):
English Birdbeak Dogfish, Brier Shark, Shovelnose Spiny Dogfish

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2003
Date Assessed: 2003-04-30
Annotations:
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Stevens, J. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)
Reviewer(s): Shark Specialist Group Australia & Oceania Regional Group (Shark Red List Authority)
Justification:
Mainly a bycatch species taken by trawl and hook, although with some limited targeting, for its flesh and oil. Catches in Australia have been increasing in the last few years with relaxation of mercury laws and fishers looking for non-quota species in the South East Trawl Fishery. The quality of the catch data has improved recently but there are as yet no species specific trends in abundance or biomass available. Biomass estimates in New Zealand over a ten-year period show no evidence of a declining trend, although there may be problems of effort standardization. Research surveys on the New South Wales slope over a 20-year period have shown a decline from 15.7 kg/h to 1.4 kg/h for the related longsnout dogfish Deania quadrispinosa. While there are currently no quantitative data on population trends, the species has low productivity and increased targeting should be viewed with concern. However, the species is currently still abundant and a Near Threatened assessment cannot be justified. The situation should be monitored carefully.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: A wide but patchy distribution in the eastern Atlantic (Iceland to Southern Africa, excluding the Mediterranean) and Pacific (Chile, Peru, Japan, southern Australia and New Zealand). In Australia, between Coffs Harbour (New South Wales) and Green Head (southern Westerna Australia), including Tasmania. Continental and insular slopes and outer shelves, usually in depths between 400 and 900 m but recorded from 70 to 1,450 m (Last and Stevens 1994, Long 1997).
Countries:
Native:
Angola (Angola); Australia (New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia); Benin; Cameroon; Chile; Congo; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; France; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Iceland; Ireland; Japan; Liberia; Mauritania; Morocco; Namibia; New Zealand; Nigeria; Peru; Portugal; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; South Africa; Spain; Togo; United Kingdom; Western Sahara
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – southwest
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Some biomass estimates are available from New Zealand (Clark et al. 2000) and these show no evidence of a declining trend. One of the more abundant mid slope species of deep water dogfish.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: On or near the bottom of the continental slope and abyssal plain in depths from 70 to 1,450 m. In Australia, catch rates are highest in the 600 to 1,100 m zone (Daley et al. 2002). There appears to be some size and sex segregation by depth. Pregnant females are rare in catches from most areas (0.8% of mature females in New South Wales (NSW) and Tasmania). The diet consists of fish, cephalopds and crustaceans; myctophids were common prey in Australia, South Africa, Namibia and in the north east Atlantic which suggests feeding at some height above the bottom (Mauchline and Gordon 1983, Yano 1991, Ebert et al. 1992, Daley et al. 2002). This may reduce their vulnerability to trawl gear.

Population parameters in Australia are as follows (Daley et al. 2002):

Size at birth: 30 cm total length (TL)
Max size: 120 cm TL
Male maturity: 80 cm TL
Female maturity: 90 cm TL
Litter size: 7 (1 to 17)
Gestation: ? (non-seasonal)
Breeding cycle: non-continuous

Length at 50% maturity in the north east Atlantic was 85 cm for males and 106 cm for females (Clarkeet al. 2002). Ageing work from the North Atlantic suggests maturity at 17 years for males and 25 years for females and a longevity of 35 years (Clarke et al. 2002).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Caght for its liver oil and flesh. The livers are high in squalene comprising about 70% by weight (Bakes et al. 1995). Catches in Australia have been increasing in the last few years with relaxation of mercury laws and fishers looking for non-quota species in the South East Trawl Fishery.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Taken by trawl, hook and gillnet both as a target and bycatch species for its liver oil and flesh. The livers are high in squalene comprising about 70% by weight (Bakes et al. 1995). Catch rates of up to 500 kg/h have been reported from Australia. Catches in Australia have been increasing in the last few years with relaxation of mercury laws and fishers looking for non-quota species in the South East Trawl Fishery. Research surveys on the NSW slope over a 20 year period have shown a decline from 15.7 kg/h to 1.4 kg/h for the related longsnout dogfish Deania quadrispinosa (Graham et al. 1997).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: 2002 regulations in the South East Trawl fishery in Australia prohibit the landings of livers unless the accompanying carcass is also landed.

Citation: Stevens, J. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003) 2003. Deania calcea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 December 2014.
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