|Scientific Name:||Dasyatis brevicaudata|
|Species Authority:||(Hutton, 1875)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Duffy, C. & Paul, L. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)|
|Reviewer(s):||Cavanagh, R.D. & Kyne, P.M. (Shark Red List Authority)|
A widespread temperate Southern Hemisphere species recorded from New Zealand, Australia and southern Africa, which is common to abundant throughout its range. Although taken in a wide variety of fisheries, it is usually released or discarded. It appears to survive capture and release well, and is assessed as Least Concern. In New Zealand, this species is prohibited as a commercial target species in quota management areas encompassing the core of its distribution.
|Range Description:||New Zealand (including Kermadec and Chatham Islands), southern Australia (southern Queensland to Shark Bay, Western Australia, including the waters of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia), and southern Africa (South Africa and Mozambique) (Zambezi River to Cape Town). In New Zealand rare at the Kermadec Islands and uncommon south of Cook Strait.|
Native:Australia (New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia); Mozambique; New Zealand (Chatham Is., Kermadec Is., North Is., South Is.); South Africa
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Poorly known despite its abundance due to confusion with other large Dasyatis spp. and lack of research. Occurs in a wide variety of habitats including shallow coastal bays, estuaries, large inlets, coastal rocky reefs, offshore islands, open sea floor and occasionally near the surface over the outer shelf. Common in 180 to 480 m off South Africa where the species is mainly reported from deep offshore banks. Not recorded below 156 m in New Zealand and Australia. During summer large mid water aggregations are found at several locations around the Poor Knights Islands, New Zealand. The purpose of these aggregations is unknown but they may be related to mating. Other ray species are known to aggregate to breed and at least one observation of mating has been made at Northern Arch.
Size and age at maturity is unknown. Reproduction is viviparous. Size at birth is about 36 cm disc width. Litter size and gestation period are unknown. Pupping and nursery areas are also unknown. Diet includes crabs, bivalve shellfish and bony fishes.
Stingrays form a regular, and possibly important part of the diet of killer whales in New Zealand waters. Other known predators include the white shark and smooth hammerhead. This is the largest stingray in the world, reaching at least 210 cm disc width, 430 cm total length and 350 kg. Individuals exceeding 150 cm disc width are common in New Zealand waters, and there are reliable but unconfirmed reports of individuals approaching 300 cm disc width.
|Use and Trade:||aquarium use|
|Major Threat(s):||Taken as bycatch in inshore trawl, Danish seine, snapper longline and purse seine fisheries. Usually discarded. Commonly taken by recreational line fishers, either by surfcasting or line fishing from boats. Also taken on set lines, and in drag and set nets. Sometimes speared, or harpooned for sport. Usually released but sometimes retained for their flesh, or for angling competitions. Commercial and recreational fishers regularly amputate stingrays' tails before releasing them to reduce the risk of injury. The relatively large number of shorttail rays seen by divers without tails suggests they survive capture and release well. A small number of rays are caught for exhibition in public aquaria.|
|Conservation Actions:||In New Zealand prohibited as a commercial target species in quota management areas (QMA) 1, 4 and 9. QMAs 1 and 9 represent the core of the species distribution in New Zealand.|
|Citation:||Duffy, C. & Paul, L. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003). 2003. Dasyatis brevicaudata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2003: e.T41796A10548942. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2003.RLTS.T41796A10548942.en . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.|
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