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Cirrhigaleus barbifer

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA CHONDRICHTHYES SQUALIFORMES SQUALIDAE

Scientific Name: Cirrhigaleus barbifer
Species Authority: Tanaka, 1912
Common Name(s):
English Mandarin Shark
French Squale Moustache
Spanish Tollo Mandarin
Taxonomic Notes: The recently described Cirrhigaleus australis was previously considered to be conspecific with this species, however recent morphometric and genetic work shows that they are distinct (White et al. 2007).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2007-07-08
Assessor(s): White, W.T.
Reviewer(s): Fowler, S.L., Cavanagh, R.D., Kyne, P.M. & Valenti, S.V. (Shark Red List Authority)
Justification:
The Mandarin Shark (Cirrhigaleus barbifer) is found in Japan, Taiwan and Indonesia (and possibly Torres Islands and Fiji Islands), and appears to be locally rare (which may be a natural characteristic of this species). Very little is known about the biology of this species, however its productivity is presumably low. The long dorsal-fin spines and probable slow moving lifestyle of this species makes it highly vulnerable to fishing activities involving nets and trawls within its known range and habitat. The Mandarin Shark has sporadic distribution, but the extent of occurrence appears to be highly fragmented with extremely low numbers of mature individuals. This species is assessed as Data Deficient based on the fact that little information is known. Further investigation into populations and range of this species is necessary.
History:
2003 Near Threatened (IUCN 2003)
2003 Near Threatened

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Mandarin Shark (Cirrhigaleus barbifer) is documented from the western Pacific around Japan (southeastern Honshu) and Taiwan (Compagno 1984, Compagno and Niem 1999, White et al. 2007). Possibly from Torres Islands in Vanuatu and Fiji Islands but needs to be compared to Cirrhigaleus australis from Australia and New Zealand. More recently this species has been recorded from landing sites in Bali and Lombok in eastern Indonesia (White et al. 2006).
Countries:
Native:
Indonesia (Bali); Japan (Honshu); Taiwan, Province of China
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The Mandarin Shark appears to be locally rare which may be a natural characteristic of this species.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species is reported demersally on the uppermost continental and insular slopes, and probably the outer continental-insular shelves at depths of 146-640 m (Compagno and Niem 1998). This stout-bodied species is reported to attain 126 cm total length (TL) (Compagno and Niem 1998). The Mandarin Shark is viviparous, with yolk-sac dependency (White et al. 2006). Males mature at ~86 cm TL and females at ~92 cm TL (White et al. 2006). Size at birth is probably >15 cm TL (White et al. 2006). The long barbels are thought to help in prey detection, and the diet probably consists of mostly bottom fishes and invertebrates (Compagno and Niem 1998). There is no available information on reproductive biology, age and growth or natural mortality of this species.
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The two long dorsal-fin spines make this species particular vulnerable to nets and trawls. The very stout body of this species also most likely reflects a slow moving lifestyle thus making net and trawl evasion more difficult. This would make this species particularly vulnerable in areas where such fishing activities are common, e.g., in eastern Indonesia. Although not utilised commercially at present, the liver is high in squalene oil and is often of high value particularly to artisanal fisherman.

The apparent low numbers of this species within its known range may be a result of the above factors, however, this species may have naturally low populations and more data is necessary.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Further investigation is required to make a more detailed assessment of this species. Monitoring of fishing activities within the known range and habitat of this species may need to be increased to gain more detailed information on its susceptibility and population trends.

Citation: White, W.T. 2009. Cirrhigaleus barbifer. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 September 2014.
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