|Scientific Name:||Chlamydoselachus anguineus|
|Species Authority:||Garman, 1884|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Eschmeyer, W.N., Fricke, R. and Van der Laan, R. (eds). 2016. Catalog of Fishes: genera, species, references. Updated 2 May 2016. Available at: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. (Accessed: 2 May 2016).|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The Southern African Frilled Shark C. africana Ebert & Compagno, 2009 is distinct from C. anguineus.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Smart, J.J., Paul, L.J. & Fowler, S.L.|
|Reviewer(s):||Lawson, J., Dulvy, N.K. & Kyne, P.M.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Kyne, P.M., Walls, R.H.L., Simpfendorfer, C. & Chin, A.|
The Frilled Shark (Chlamydoselachus anguineus) has a wide but very patchy distribution in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Although little is known of its life history, this species is likely to have very low resilience to exploitation. This deepwater shark is rarely encountered as bycatch in bottom trawl, midwater trawl, deep-set longline, and deep-set gillnet fisheries. As bycatch, this species is sometimes retained for meat or fishmeal, or is discarded. Over the past few decades, deepwater fisheries have expanded and there is some concern that a continued expansion, both geographically and in its depth range, will increase the levels of bycatch of this species. Based on its wide range, however, and that many of the countries where this species has been caught have effective management and depth restrictions to fisheries in place (for example Australia, New Zealand and Europe), this species is assessed as Least Concern. Nonetheless, its apparent rarity and intrinsic sensitivity to over-exploitation mean that captures in fisheries should be tracked carefully (through the collection of species-specific fisheries catch and monitoring data) to ensure this species does not become threatened in the near future.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The Frilled Shark has a wide ranging but very sporadic distribution in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In the eastern Atlantic, it has been caught off Arctic Norway, the British Isles, the Iberian peninsula, Madeira, and North Africa. In the western Atlantic, it has been caught off the eastern United States, Suriname, French Guiana and Guyana. It has also been caught on the mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores. In the Pacific there are records from Australia (New South Wales, Tasmania and Victoria), New Zealand, Japan, Taiwan, Peru, Chile, the United States (California) and the Hawaiian Islands (Roedel and Ripley 1950, Nakaya and Bass 1978, Bass 1979, Uyeno et al. 1983, Stewart 2000, Last and Stevens 2009, Ebert et al. 2013, Ebert and Stehmann 2013). Records from Angola, Namibia and South Africa refer to the Southern African Frilled Shark (C. africana) (Ebert and Compagno, 2009).|
Native:Australia (New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria); Chile; France; French Guiana; Guyana; Japan; Mauritania; Morocco; New Zealand; Norway; Peru; Portugal (Azores, Madeira); Spain (Canary Is.); Suriname; Taiwan, Province of China; United Kingdom; United States (California, Georgia, Hawaiian Is., Massachusetts)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – eastern central; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no information available on the population size or trends. It is generally rare, but there are a few localities (for example, Japan) where it is more common.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The Frilled Shark is demersal or benthopelagic, on the outer continental and insular shelves, and is reported as occasionally pelagic over the upper and middle continental slope. This species ranges from depths of 20 to 1,500 m, but is most typically found between 500 and 1,000 m depth (Compagno 1984, Last and Stevens 2009, Ebert et al. 2013). |
This species is viviparous, and likely matrotrophic with a probable gestation period of 1–2 years; young are born 39 to 60 cm total length (TL) and 2 to 15 pups are produced per litter, which are nourished by large uterine eggs (11–12 cm diameter); size at maturity is estimated to be 92–163 cm TL for males, and 130–135 cm TL for females; maximum size, known only for females, is approximately 196 cm TL (Gudger and Smith 1933, Tanaka et al. 1990, Last and Stevens 2009, Ebert et al. 2013). A single trawl off the mid-Atlantic Ridge to the north of the Azores retained 34 Frilled Sharks (15 males and 19 females) in December 2003; it is suspected that this trawl took place during a mating event (Kukueva and Pavlov 2008).
|Use and Trade:||This species is sometimes retained from bycatch for fishmeal and for meat (Compagno 1984) and is also occasionally kept in aquaria (in Japan).|
There are no targeted fisheries for the Frilled Shark, but this species is occasionally taken as bycatch in bottom and midwater trawls, deep-set longlines, and in deep-set gillnets. In Japan, the species is noted on occasion in fish markets.
Deepwater fisheries have expanded at an annual rate of 62.5 metres depth per decade over the last half century from 1950–2004 (Watson and Morato 2013). There is some concern that if deepwater fisheries continue to expand, bycatch for this species may also increase. However, in many of the countries where this species has been encountered (New Zealand, Australia, European waters and the United States), effective management and depth restrictions to fisheries are in place (see Conservation section). Nonetheless, species-specific fisheries catch and monitoring data would help understand the impact that bycatch is having on this species.
In Australian waters, a considerable proportion of the depth range of this species is outside the activity of commercial trawl fisheries so it is expected that bycatch levels would be low to negligible; catch levels are low in the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery (SESSF) (Walker and Gason 2007).
There are national and regional initiatives aimed at reducing bycatch of deepwater sharks which benefit the Frilled Shark.
In the European Union, based on advice from the International Council on the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) to end fishing for deepwater sharks, the European Union (EU) Fisheries Council established a zero Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limitation for the sharks most vulnerable to over-exploitation in 2007. In 2010, the EU Fisheries Council added Frilled Shark to this measure and set the deepwater shark TAC at zero, starting in 2012 (CECAF 2012). The EU also introduced a zero bycatch allowance on the same deepwater shark species in 2012.
In the Commonwealth Trawl Sector of the Australian Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery, most areas below 700 m are closed to trawling, thus locally providing refuge for this species (Penney et al. 2014). If deeper water areas were to be reopened for Orange Roughy fishing, then bycatch levels of this and other deepwater sharks should be monitored.
|Citation:||Smart, J.J., Paul, L.J. & Fowler, S.L. 2016. Chlamydoselachus anguineus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41794A68617785.Downloaded on 29 July 2016.|
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