|Scientific Name:||Saguinus midas (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Taxonomy follows Hershkovitz (1977), except in the recognition of the two former subspecies (S. m. midas and S. m. niger) as full species (see S. niger). Vallinoto et al. (2006) found that samples from S. midas from the Río Uatumã separated out from those from the Rio Trombetas to the east, about 200km. This indicates a possibility that red-handed and yellow-handed forms of S. midas may be geographical races or distinct species (J. de Sousa e Silva Jr. pers. comm., April 2007).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. & Boubli, J.-P.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern as the species is common, occurs in one of the least disturbed areas of Latin America, is present in degraded habitats, and there are currently no major threats.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Saguinus midas occurs north of the Rio Amazonas and east of the Rios Negro and Branco in Brazil, extending north and east to the coast of Amapá and the Guianas (Napier 1976). It is also evidently absent from a large part of central Guyana. It does not occur around the city of Manaus, the domain of Saguinus bicolor, and shows only a narrow zone where it mixes with this species on the periphery of S. bicolor's range (Ayres et al. 1980). The situation is probably the same with the two Saguinus martinsi subspecies. In the north of its range, Saguinus midas occurs in French Guiana, Suriname and Guyana (Husson 1957), but is largely restricted to the east of the Essequibo River (Norconk et al. 1996). It would seem that it has crossed the Essequibo along the lower reaches of the river, judging by sightings at Hosororo Hill on the Venezuelan border and from Waraputa on the west bank of the Essequibo just south of Mabura Hill (Sussman and Phillips-Conroy 1995; Norconk et al. 1996). There had been no reports of callitrichids occurring in Venezuela (Handley 1976; Bodini and Pérez-Hernández 1987), until Linares (1998) indicated its occurrence in eastern Bolívar. Urbani (2006), on the other hand, was unable to find evidence of the presence of S. midas in Bolívar, and concluded that it is not present there or is extremely rare.|
Native:Brazil (Amapá, Amazonas, Pará); French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Undoubtedly common throughout the majority of its range, it is considered the most widespread and abundant of all callitrichids and is currently expanding its range, at the expense of Saguinus bicolor (see Ayres et al. 1980; Subirá 1998b).|
Recorded population densities include:
Raleighvallen-Voltzberg: Suriname 23.5 individuals/km² or 4 groups/km² (Mittermeier 1977)
Four localities in Guyana: 2.3-13.9 individuals/km² or 0.4-2.7 groups/km² (Muckenhirn et al. 1976)
Porto Platon, Amapá: 16.4-33.5 individuals/km² (Thorington Jr. 1968)
Fragmentos Florestais, north of Manaus: 3.9 individuals/km² or 0.6 groups/km² (Rylands and Keuroghlian 1988)
Nouragues Natural Reserve: 22.9 individuals/km² or 5.4 groups/km² (Kessler 1998)
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Saguinus midas occurs in lowland and hilly Guiana shield rainforest, savanna forest, white-sand forest, and also in secondary habitats in close proximity to villages and cities. They do particularly well in edge habitats. In Suriname, the species is common in the interior, the savanna belt and old coastal plain, but does not enter the young coastal plain (Mittermeier 1977; Mittermeier and Van Roosmalen 1981, 1982). |
Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums, saps, latex) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects). Marmosets have morphological and behavioural adaptations for gouging trees trunks, branches and vines of certain species to stimulate the flow of gum, which they eat, and in some species form a notable component of the diet. The dentition of the tamarins (Saguinus and Leontopithecus) does not provide for gouging and they eat gums only when readily available.
Tamarins live in extended family groups of between four and 15 individuals, but usually 2-8. Thorington Jr. (1968) observed eight groups in Amapá that ranged in size from 2-6. Kessler (1995, 1998) observed 13 groups ranging in size from 3-7, mean 4.2 ±1.5.
Tamarins are monomorphic - exhibiting only minor differences in body and canine size.
Adult male weight 515 g (Fleagle and Miittermeier 1980; Smith and Jungers 1997)
Adult female weight 575 g (Fleagle and Miittermeier 1980; Smith and Jungers 1997)
Mean adult weight 590 ±70.7 g (n=23) (Pack et al. 1999).
Adults H&B 23.0 cm, TL 35.0 cm (Hershkovitz 1977).
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species. They are rarely hunted, but are a least preferred food species. Their tails are used for ornamentations, but otherwise it is the only species usually found in the immediate vicinity of villages where there is hunting.|
Mittermeier and Van Roosmalen (1982) and Baal et al. (1988) discuss its conservation status and its occurrence in the protected areas of Suriname. The following conservation units are within its geographical distribution:
Cabo Orange National Park (619,000 ha) AP
Monte Roraima National Park (116,000 ha) RR
Mountains of Tumucumaque National Park (3,882,376 ha)
Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve (385,000 ha) PA (probable)
Lago Piratuba Biological Reserve (357,000 ha) AP
Uatumã Biological Reserve (560,000 ha) AM
Anavilhanas Ecological Station (350,012 ha) AM
Maracá Ecological Station (101,312 ha) RR (possible)
Niquiá Ecological Station (286,600 ha) RR (possible)
Jarí Ecological Station (227,116 ha) PA
Fragmentos Florestais - Amazonia Area of Relevant Ecological Interest (ARIE) (3,288 ha)
Central Suriname Nature Reserve (1,600,000 ha) (Mittermeier and Van Roosmalen 1982; Norconk et al. 1996)
Brownsberg Nature Park (8,400 ha) (Mittermeier and Van Roosmalen 1982; Norconk et al. 2003)
Sipaliwini Savanna Nature Reserve (100 000 ha) (Mittermeier and Van Roosmalen 1982)
Herten rits Nature Reserve (100 ha)
Brinckheuvel Nature Reserve (6,000 ha) (unconfirmed: Mittermeier and Van Roosmalen 1982)
Coppename Mouth Nature Reserve (10,000 ha) (unconfirmed: Mittermeier and Van Roosmalen 1982)
Wia-Wia Nature Reserve (36,000 ha)
Galibi Nature Reserve (4,000 ha)
Kaieteur National Park (11,655 ha)
Wai Wai Community-owned Conservation Area (600,000 ha)
Conservation International Conservation Concession (20,000 ha)
Nouragues Research Station (Kessler 1995; Yioulatos 1995)
It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.
|Citation:||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. & Boubli, J.-P. 2008. Saguinus midas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T41525A10489882.Downloaded on 24 March 2018.|
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