|Scientific Name:||Saguinus geoffroyi|
|Species Authority:||(Pucheran, 1845)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Hershkovitz (1977) considered Saguinus geoffroyi to be a subspecies of S. oedipus. Comparative morphological studies by Hanihara and Natori (1987), Moore and Cheverud (1992) and Skinner (1991) argued for them being separate species. Eisenberg (1989), Rylands (1993), Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976), Mittermeier and Coimbra-Filho (1981), Hernández-Camacho and Defler (1988, 1991), Mittermeier et al. (1988), Rylands et al. (1993), Groves (2001, 2005), Mast et al. (1993) and Defler (1994) all list S. geoffroyi and S. oedipus as separate species.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Marsh, L.K., Cuarón, A.D. & de Grammont, P.C.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Least Concern given that it remains relatively common and widespread within its range, and at present there is no reason to believe that it has undergone a decline that would warrant listing the species in a threatened category.
|Range Description:||Central and eastern Panama extending into Colombia. The exact western limit is not clearly defined, but marked by Reid (1997) at just a little west of the Canal Zone. Their range it seems is restricted to the east of the Azuero peninsula.
In discussing habitat preference in Panama, Moynihan (1970) stated that “Rufous-naped tamarins are abundant in some parts of the Pacific coastal region, and also occur in some central areas approximately equidistant from both coasts. To my knowledge, however, they are completely absent from the whole of the Atlantic coast of the isthmus, except for one small, highly modified or “unnatural” area.” (p.2). The exception he mentioned is around the Canal Zone, the city of Colón, and Lake Gatún where the original forest has been almost entirely destroyed, and Moynihan (1970, 1976) argued that their occurrence there is the result of a recent range extension. The map of localities provided by Hershkovitz (1977, p.915) confirms Moynihan’s observation, with only two records on the Atlantic side of the isthmus except in the vicinity of the Canal Zone. The two outlying Atlantic coast records listed in the gazetteer (p.925) are: Locality 6c, San Blas, Mandinga, 9º27'N, 79º04'W, C. O. Handley, Jr., May 1957, a series of six specimens in the American Museum of Natural History, New York; and locality 6d, San Blas, Armila, Quebrada Venado, 8º40'N, 77º28'W, C. O. Handley, Jr. February-March 1963, a series of 12 specimens, also in the US National Museum. Moynihan (1970, 1976) suggested that their absence from the Atlantic coast was related to a preference for drier forests (“of moderate humidity”) typical of the Pacific coast. Skinner (1985) confirmed their occurrence in San Blas and reported the presence of S. geoffroyi in 21 sites all in moist tropical forest from the western Río Chagres basin to the Darién, from the Atlantic to the Pacific coasts.
In Colombia it occurs along the Pacific coast, south as far as the Río San Juan. The Río Atrato was believed to be the eastern limit to its range (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976; Hershkovitz 1977), but Vargas (1994, cited in Defler 2003) found the species occurring around the National Natural Park of Las Orquídeas in the vicinity of the village of Mandé, Antioquia, at elevations as high as 1,000 m, extending its range to the west of the upper Río Cauca. Barbosa et al. (1988, in Mast et al. 1993) also recorded the species at Quibdo, a town just east of the upper Río Atrato.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Population densities of 3.6 individuals/km², 4.7 individuals/km², and 5.6 individuals/km² have been recorded for the island of Barro Colorado (Eisenberg 1979). Dawson (1977) estimated 20-30 individuals/km² in the Rodman Naval Station, Balboa. Skinner (1985) reported group densities in six areas in Panama ranging from 0.34 groups/km² to 5.35 groups/km².|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Occurs in moist seasonal dry forests and secondary forests and scrub (Moynihan 1970; Dawson 1976; Skinner 1985; Garber 1993).
Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums, saps, latex) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects). Marmosets have morphological and behavioural adaptations for gouging trees trunks, branches and vines of certain species to stimulate the flow of gum, which they eat, and in some species form a notable component of the diet. The dentition of the tamarins (Saguinus and Leontopithecus) does not provide for gouging and they eat gums only when readily available.
Tamarins live in extended family groups of between four and 15 individuals, but usually 2-8. Average group size recorded for Saguinus geoffroyi by Dawson (1977) was 5-7 individuals (range 3-9). Generally, only one female per group breeds. Home ranges vary from 9.4 ha (Garber 1980a,b), to 26 ha or 32 ha (Dawson 1979), depending evidently on seasonal resource distribution and abundance.
There have been a number of ecological/behavioural studies of the species in Panama—first studied by Moynihan (1970) and Hladik and Hladik (1969) on the Island of Barro Colorado, then Dawson (1976, 1977, 1979; Dawson and Dukelow 1976) and subsequently Garber (1980a,b, 1984), both at the Rodman Naval Station, near Balboa, Lindsay (1980) at Punta Escoces, San Blas, and Skinner (1985, 1986) carried out a survey of 30 sites in Panama.
Infants are born throughout the year, S. geoffroyi shows a peak of births between April and June (Dawson and Dukelow 1976). Oestrous cycles average 15.5 days. Gestation unknown, but probably similar ot S. oedipus at about 145 days. Interbirth intervals range from 154 to 540 days (average 311 days) (Skinner 1986).
Mean adult male body weight 486 g (n = 53).
|Major Threat(s):||This species has a relatively restricted range in a region that has undergone extensive deforestation over the last 50 years (Rasmussen et al. 2002). However, it remains relatively common within this range, and is able to persist in slightly modified habitats. Nonetheless, there may be localized declines taking place due to ongoing habitat loss. In Panama, the species is frequently hunted and captured for the pet trade (Rasmussen et al. 2002). Vargas (1994, in Defler 2004) reported trapping and trade in this species west of the Río Atrato.|
This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES.
Present in numerous protected areas across its range:
Los Katios National Natural Park (72,000 ha)
Altos da Campaña National Park (4,816 ha)
Darien National Park (579,000 ha)
Chagres National Park (129,000 ha)
Cerro Hoya National Park (32,257 ha)
Sarigua National Park (8,000 ha)
Camiño de Cruces National Park (4,000 ha) (Skinner 1985b)
Portobelo National Park (35,929 ha)
Metropolitano National Park (265 ha)
General Omar Torrijos National Park (25,275 ha)
Soberanía National Park (22,140 ha) (Skinner 1985b)
Interoceánico de las Américas National Park (40,000 ha)
Nargana Marine National Park (147,540 ha)
El Montuoso Forest Reserve (10,375 ha)
La Tronosa Forest Reserve (20,579 ha)
Chepigana Forest Reserve (257,219 ha)
Canglon Forest Reserve (31,650 ha)
Cenegon del Mangle Wildlife Refuge (1,000 ha)
Peñón de la Onda Wildlife Refuge (3,900 ha)
El Peñón del Cerro de los Pozos Wildlife Refuge (30 ha)
Playa de la Barqueta Agrícola Wildlife Refuge (5,935 ha)
Playa de Boca Vieja Wildlife Refuge (3,740 ha)
Corregimiento del Nargana Wildlife Refuge Area (100,000 ha)
Isla Canas Wildlife Refuge (25,433 ha)
La Barqueta Agricola Wildlife Refuge (5,935 ha)
Barro Colorado natural Monument (5,400 ha)
Isla Majé Scientific Reserve (1,433 ha)
Lago Gatun Recreation Area (348 ha) (introduced?)
Filo del Tallo Hydrological Protection Zone (24,722 ha)
Tapagra Hydrological Protection Zone (2,520 ha)
Jurado Resguardo Indígena (16,700 ha)
Comarca Kuna Yala (San Blas) (Indigenous area) (320,000 ha)
Punta Patiño Private Reserve(13,805 ha)
Golfo de Montijo Protected Area (89,452 ha)
Cienega de las Macanas Protected Area (2,000 ha)
Corregimiento del Nargana Protected Area (34,330 ha)
Bagre Biological Corridor (31,275 ha)
Skinner (1985a) registered the need for increased measures to controil hunting for sale as pets, for educational awareness materials and for the monitoring of trends in population numbers and habitat loss.
|Citation:||Marsh, L.K., Cuarón, A.D. & de Grammont, P.C. 2008. Saguinus geoffroyi. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 March 2014.|
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