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Lepus granatensis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA LAGOMORPHA LEPORIDAE

Scientific Name: Lepus granatensis
Species Authority: Rosenhauer, 1856
Common Name(s):
English Granada Hare, Iberian Hare
French LIÈVRE IBÉRIQUE
Spanish Liebre Iberica, LIEBRE IBÉRICA
Taxonomic Notes: Lepus granatensis was formerly included in europaeus or capensis; but see Palacios (1983, 1989), and Bonhomme et al. (1986). The population in Sardinia, to which the names mediterraneus Wagner, 1841 and typicus Hilzheimer, 1906, are applied, in the past have been assigned to this species based on Miller (1912), who regarded it as closest to granatensis, though he retained it as a "...very distinct species" because of its small size. If in the future mediterraneus is confirmed as a synonym of granatensis, it has priority over granatensis. The Sardinian population is included in L. capensis until its taxonomic status is resolved.

Molecular phylogeny has shown that L. granatensis is indeed a full species and one of three hare species present on the Iberian Peninsula (Alves et al. 2003). Previous questions regarding taxonomic distinction of L. granatensis from L. capensis have been resolved by genetic and morphological comparisons (Mitchell-Jones et al. 1999, Alves et al. 2003).

There are three subspecies: Lepus granatensis granatensis, L. g. solisi (Mallorca), L. g. gallaecius (Galicia and Astrias, Spain) (Hoffmann and Smith 2005).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H.
Reviewer(s): Alves, P.C. & Boyer, A.F. (Lagomorph Red List Authority)
Justification:
Lepus granatensis is cited as common and locally abundant within its widespread geographic range of the Iberian Peninsula (Mitchell-Jones et al. 1999). The current population trend in general is stable (Duarte 2000).
History:
1996 Not Evaluated (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
1996 Not Evaluated

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The geographic range of Lepus granatensis includes Portugal and nearly the entire extent of Spain (Alves et al. 2003). It is excluded from northern regions of Spain where L. castroviejoi and europaeus exist (Alves et al. 2003). In most of the northern provinces (Navarra, Asturias, Cantabria, Aragon, Catalunya, and Basque Country), L. europaeus and L. granatensis exist in parapatry, the Iberian hare inhabits the southern region and the brown hare can be found to the north (Fernandez et al. 2004). L. granatensis is also located on the island of Mallorca of the Balearic chain (Schneider 2001). It has gone extinct on the island of Ibiza (Balearic Islands) (Mitchell-Jones et al. 1999).

L. granatensis has been introduced in southern France (Perpignan) (Alves et al. 2003).
Countries:
Native:
Portugal; Spain (Baleares - Introduced)
Introduced:
France
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Lepus granatensis is considered locally abundant and common in the southern and central portions of its range (Mitchell-Jones et al. 1999; Farfan et al. 2004). In the autonomous communities of Galicia and Asturias, it is thought to be extremely rare or extinct (Mitchell-Jones et al. 1999). On the island of Mallorca it has become extinct in the western mountain range and is rare throughout the remainder of the island (Mitchell-Jones et al. 1999). Population trends in Navarra and Donana National Park, monitored over several years, have been increasing (Carro et al. 2004). A study of relative abundance and population trends in northeast Spain indicated that L. granatensis experienced, "a general positive trend during the study period" which occurred from 1992-2002 (Gortazar et al. 2007).
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Lepus granatensis can persist in a variety of habitats within Spain and Portugal (Mitchell-Jones et al. 1999). It occupies arable lands of central Spain and mountainous forests of northwestern Spain (Mitchell-Jones et al. 1999). Other has been checked on the Habitat Preferences list and has been identified as dunes along the Mediterranean coast (Mitchell-Jones et al. 1999).

Reproduction in L. granatensis is continuous year round, with peaks experienced between February and June (Alves et al. 2002; Farfan et al. 2004). It has been estimated that the mean number of litters per productive female per year and the mean litter size are 3.48 and 2.08, respectively (Farfan et al. 2004).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species has been identified as an important game species for the Iberian Peninsula (Mitchell-Jones et al. 1999).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No major threats to Lepus granatensis have been cited.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Lepus granatensis is listed as an Appendix III species under the Bern Convention as part of L. capensis sensu lato (Mitchell-Jones et al. 1999).

Citation: Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H. 2008. Lepus granatensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 July 2014.
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