|Scientific Name:||Mazama bororo|
|Species Authority:||Duarte, 1996|
Mazama sp. nov. ssp.
|Taxonomic Notes:||Duarte (1992) reported the existence of a new species which he named Mazama bororo. This classification was predominantly based on karyotype differences between other red brocket Mazama species. The first individual analyzed was a captive individual originated from Capão Bonito locality, São Paulo, Brazil. A more detailed description of the animal was made by Duarte and Merino (1997), Duarte (1996) and Duarte and Jorge (2003), who recognized this species as a morphologically intermediate form between M. nana and M. americana.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable C2a(ii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Vogliotti, A. & Oliveira, M.L. and Duarte, J.M.B|
|Reviewer(s):||Zanetti, E.S.Z. and González, S.|
Mazama bororo is confirmed to be Vulnerable. This is a range-restricted species and endemic of Brazil, it has an estimated number of 8,500 mature individuals in just one subpopulation considering two density levels along its extent of occurrence: 1.5/km² in the well-protected areas and 0.5/km² in the lower quality remnants around. A continuing decline in numbers of mature individuals and population structure are inferred due to several processes that will continue in the next years related to poaching, predation by domestic and feral dogs. The species is also highly threatened due to the habitat quality loss and forest conversion to agricultural lands (pines, eucalyptus, banana and heart of Palm). Other threats are the possible competition with other deer species as the Red Brocket (M. americana).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The geographic range was initially based on the origins of captive animals used in the species description (Duarte 1992, 1996; Duarte and Jorge 2003). The first wild population was discovered at Intervales State Park between 2000 and 2002 (Vogliotti and Duarte 2009). Since then, it was described only nine sites of present occurrence (Vogliotti and Duarte 2012). Mazama bororo seems to be restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome, between the parallels 23° and 26° South and the meridians 47° and 50° West (Vogliotti and Duarte 2010). This range extends along the south of São Paulo State, east of Paraná and extreme northeast of Santa Catarina State (Vogliotti and Duarte 2012).|
Native:Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina, São Paulo)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Population data about this species are still scarce. The only available population-based study was conducted in Intervales State Park, where it was estimated a density of 1.5 individuals/km² (considered the optimal condition in well-protected areas). Lower densities (0.5 individuals/km²) were assigned to the remaining areas along its extension of occurrence due to the relative abundance of species evidences in different areas. These values generated an estimated total number of 8,500 mature individuals (Vogliotti and Duarte 2010, 2012). A continuing decline in numbers of mature individuals and population structure are inferred considering an estimated number of 8,500 mature individuals in just one subpopulation. Its range is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome (between the parallels 23° and 26° South and the meridians 47° and 50° West) along the south of São Paulo, east of Paraná and extreme northeast of Santa Catarina States in Brazil (Duarte et al. 2012).|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is endemic to the Tropical and Subtropical moist broadleaf forests of Atlantic Forest biome. It occupies all forest formations of the Serra do Mar coastal forests ecoregion (montane, submontane and lowland rain forests) and their ecotones with the Araucaria moist forest and the Paraná-Paraíba interior forests (Vogliotti and Duarte 2010). The regional relief varies from the sea level coastal plains to abrupt terrain and hills above 1,200 meters. The climate in the region is humid subtropical, with transition to the highland humid subtropical. |
Home range estimations were performed using two females radio tracked from Intervales State Park, population showing a variation from 25 to 64 hectares (Vogliotti and Duarte 2009). Streams of water seem to be an important displacement route for this species.
Mazama bororo showed crepuscular and nocturnal habits and seems to be more active during the summer/rainy season (Vogliotti and Duarte 2012). Fawns were recorded between September and February and some evidence of frugivory was also provided by camera traps (Vogliotti and Duarte 2010).
|Generation Length (years):||5|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threats were compiled from national and regional lists of endangered Brazilian fauna (Duarte et al. 2012, Vogliotti and Braga 2009, Duarte and Vogliotti 2009) and they are: poaching, habitat loss and fragmentation related to changes in the land use, habitat degradation caused by the illegal exploitation of heart of Palm, predation by domestic and feral dogs. Possible threat is: emerging infectious diseases from cattle.|
|Conservation Actions:||The main legal frame in Brazil for threaten species management and protection are: the National Official List of endangered fauna species (BRASIL 2014) and the Endangered Mammals of Paraná (PARANÁ 2010). The guidelines for its conservation are outlined in the National Action Plan for the Brazilian endangered deer (Duarte et al. 2012) and the Conservation Plan for the endangered mammals of Paraná State (PARANÁ 2009). The general Action Plan objective is the maintenance of the population and genetic viability of the species listed. Its specific objectives can be arranged in four main categories covering a number of specific actions for the conservation of Small Red Brocket Deer: 1) Public policies and legislation (8 specific actions); 2) Habitat protection (8 actions); 3) Basic and applied research (9 actions); 4) In situ conservation program (11 actions). Some of these actions have already been implemented and others are in progress. The level of implementation of the National Action Plan will be evaluated in a workshop in November 2015.|
|Citation:||Vogliotti, A. & Oliveira, M.L. and Duarte, J.M.B. 2016. Mazama bororo. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41023A22155086.Downloaded on 26 July 2016.|
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