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Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA MAGNOLIOPSIDA CARYOPHYLLALES CACTACEAE

Scientific Name: Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus
Species Authority: (Boed.) Buxb. & Backeb.
Common Name(s):
Spanish Biznaugita
Synonym(s):
Echinocactus schmiedickeanus Boed.
Taxonomic Notes: Accepted as a valid species by Anderson (2001) and Hunt (1999). Some hobbyists place it in the genus Gymnocactus

Twelve subspecies are recognized all of which except one were previously assessed in 2002:  andersonii Mosco (CR), 
  • bonatzii (Gerhart Frank) Panar. (EN), 
  • dickisoniae (Glass & R.A.Foster) N.P.Taylor (CR), 
  • flaviflorus (Gerhart Frank & A.B Lau) Glass (CR), 
  • gracilis (Glass & R.A.Foster) Glass (CR), 
  • jauernigii(Gerhart Frank) D.R.Hunt (CR), 
  • klinkerianus  (Backeb. & H.Jacobsen) N.P.Taylor (NT), 
  • macrochele (Werderm.) N.P. Taylor (EN), 
  • rioverdensis (Gerhart Frank) Lüthy (CR), 
  • rubriflorus (Gerhart Frank) Panar. (NE), 
  • schmiedickeanus (Boed.) Rauh & Backeb. (CR) and 
  • schwarzii (Shurly) N.P.Taylor (CR).  

None of these has been reassessed, hence they are now all excluded from the IUCN Red List.
T. bonatzii, T. jauernigii and T. rioverdensis were all originally assessed as separate species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2009-11-19
Assessor(s): Fitz Maurice, B, Fitz Maurice, W.A., Sotomayor, M. & Smith, M.
Reviewer(s): Goettsch, B.K., Superina, M. & Schipper, J.
Justification:
Although all the subspecies, including the typical one, are severely threatened, Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus as a whole is not. As a whole the species has a wide distribution, and it has more than ten subpopulations and consists of more than 10,000 individuals. As most subpopulations are declining and some of the subspecies are on the brink of extinction, a Near Threatened listing is warranted. The species nearly meets the requirements for listing in a threatened category under criterion B.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found over a wide area in the States of Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí and western Tamaulipas, Mexico. It is known from many localities.
Countries:
Native:
Mexico (Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population as a whole is still large, although none of the subspecies is very common; all have fairly small ranges and grow very scattered.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This cactus grows in xerophytic shrubland (Chihuahuan Desert) among calcareous rocks, often in rock cracks or in the shade of Hechtia spp.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is grown in cultivation as an ornamental, but it is also collected from the wild.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Illegal collecting is the major threat, and overgrazing and subsequent erosion poses a lesser threat. Other agricultural activities and building of infrastructure seem to have minimal impact because of the habitats where it grows.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This cactus is listed on CITES Appendix I, but the laws governing imports in the countries of destination need to be enforced. There are 41 localities, and 31% of them are in protected areas.
It is widely propagated. The Cadereyta Regional Botanic Gardens has developed a universal technique to reproduce species of the genus Turbinicarpus (including Gymnocactus), with a rate of 5x/4 weeks and 95% soil adaptation success (E. Sánchez pers. comm. 2011).

Citation: Fitz Maurice, B, Fitz Maurice, W.A., Sotomayor, M. & Smith, M. 2013. Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 September 2014.
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