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Goniurosaurus kuroiwae

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA REPTILIA SQUAMATA EUBLEPHARIDAE

Scientific Name: Goniurosaurus kuroiwae
Species Authority: (Namiye, 1912)
Common Name(s):
English Tokashiki Gecko, Ryukyu Eyelid Gecko, Kuroiwa's Ground Gecko
Synonym(s):
Eublepharis kuroiwae (Wermuth, 1965)
Gymnodactylus albofasciatus subspecies kuroiwae Namiye, 1912
Taxonomic Notes: One subspecies, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae orientalis, in the current definition may suffer non-monophyly, needing further subspecific subdivision (Ora et al. 1999).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-06-30
Assessor(s): Ota, H.
Reviewer(s): Böhm, M., Collen, B. & Ram, M. (Sampled Red List Index Coordinating Team)
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H.T., Wearn, O.R., Wren, S., Zamin, T., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Lewis, S., Lintott, P. & Powney, G.
Justification:
Goniurosaurus kuroiwae is restricted to several islands of the central part of the Ryukyu Archipelago of Japan and has an extent of occurrence of approximately 1,600 km². G. kuroiwae is predated by various introduced species across its range, and is also likely to be impacted by habitat degradation. Due to its restricted range, the likely fragmented nature of its distribution, and continuing decline in population numbers and habitat quality, G. kuroiwae has been assessed as Endangered.
History:
1996 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Rare (Groombridge 1994)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species inhabits the Ryukyu Archipelago of Japan and is divided into several subspecies, which have the following distribution: G. kuroiwae yamashinae on the island of Kumejima, G. k. splendens on the island of Tokunoshima, G. k. orientalis on the islands of Tonakijima, Akajima, Tokashikijima and Iejima, G. k. toyamai on Iheyajima Island, and G. k. kuroiwae on the islands of Okinawajima, Sesokojima and Kourijima (Grismer et al. 1994).

The distributional area of this species has been calculated as 1,601 km². It ranges from sea level to 450 m above sea level.
Countries:
Native:
Japan (Nansei-shoto)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is no population information available for this species.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species inhabits the leaf litter of subtropical forests in karst limestone areas (Dial and Grismer 1992). It chiefly preys at night on small invertebrates on the ground surface by switching motive and passive (ambushing) foraging tactics (Werner et al. 2004, 2006). Each adult female lays one to three clutches per breeding season (from late May to early August), and each clutch consists of no more than two eggs (H. Ota pers. comm. 2010). Hatchlings, appearing from late August to early October, usually become mature in the late breeding season of the next year or in the early breeding season in two years later (Tanaka and Nishihira 1987, 1989; H. Ota pers. comm. 2010).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is reported to have been collected by illegal pet traders on Tokunoshima, Okinawajima, Kumejima, and Iheyajima.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by human activities including deforestation (Ota 2000). Large areas of the native subtropical forest on the Ryukyu Islands was cleared and converted for agriculture, and habitat degradation took place during World War II (Watanabe et al. 2005). The species is also seriously threatened by predation by introduced carnivores, such as the mongoose (on Okinawajima), weasel (on Akajima), and domestic and feral cats (everywhere). The species has also been collected by illegal pet traders (on Tokunoshima, Okinawajima, Kumejima, and Iheyajima).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Being rare, this species has some protection in Japan. According to the 2000 Red List of Japan, the subspecies G. k. toyamai is Critically Endangered, G. k. yamashinae, G. k. splendens and G. k. orientalis are considered Endangered and G. k. kuroiwae is considered Vulnerable. Population monitoring is required for this species.

Citation: Ota, H. 2010. Goniurosaurus kuroiwae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 September 2014.
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