|Scientific Name:||Quickella arenaria (Potiez & Michaud, 1838)|
Catinella arenaria Bouchard-Chanteraux, 1837
Catinella arenaria Potiez & Michaud, 1838
Succinea arenaria Potiez and Michaud, 1835
Succinea bettae Gredler, 1856
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Bank, R.A. and Neubert, E. 2017. MolluscaBase. Checklist of the land and freshwater Gastropoda of Europe. Last update: July 16th, 2017.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species can only be reliably identified by dissection, hence any new records from new regions need to be carefully validated, as other species of Succineidae look very similar.
The species was placed in the genus Catinella for many years, but as this is predominantly a genus found in Hawaii and Pacific regions, the subgenus Quickella was elevated to genus level.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Allen, D.J. & Neubert, E.|
|Contributor(s):||Moorkens, E., von Proschwitz, T. & Martínez-Ortí, A.|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 28 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
Within the European region, this species has a scattered disjunct distribution, reflecting the two different primary habitats (coastal dune systems and wet and swampy or fen habitats with running water). It is a post-glacial relict, that was most common at the beginning of the Holocene, and has been in steady decline for centuries (Kerney 1999). At present, the species is known from a few scattered localities in the UK, Ireland, Sweden, northern Spain, Switzerland, northern Italy, Poland and Slovakia, and considered to be extinct in Belgium. The species was originally assessed as Near Threatened in 1996, as species decline was still ongoing in southern and western parts of the range, and it was a species that seemed susceptible to habitat disturbance and loss in all but the northern populations.
There is still an overall declining population trend, however at some sites, populations have been stabilised as a result of conservation interventions (e.g., in the UK and Sweden). Decline is still ongoing in Ireland and Switzerland with some loss of sites since 2000. Whilst the species is considered Least Concern as the rate and percentage of lost sites does not meet the thresholds for a threatened category, the scattered range means it could become a candidate for a threatened category in the future. It is apparent that ongoing monitoring and habitat management is still required for this species to maintain the existing range.
|Range Description:||Within the European region, this species has a scattered disjunct distribution, reflecting the two different habitats occupied. It is a post-glacial relict, that was most common at the beginning of the Holocene, and has been in steady decline for centuries (Kerney 1999). In the 1980s, Kerney recognised that the species could be vulnerable to extinction and started documenting the distribution. At present, the species is known from a few scattered localities in the UK (two main locations), Ireland (eight locations), Sweden, northern and eastern Spain (five locations; A. Martínez-Ortí pers. comm. 2017), France (one location), Switzerland, northern Italy, Poland (one location), Finland (one location) and Slovakia (two locations) (Lisicky 1991, Wells and Chatfield 1992, Turner et al. 1998, Holyoak and Holyoak 2009, Seddon et al. 2014, Cucherat 2006, Ormio 2015). It is considered to be extinct in Belgium (T. Backlejau pers. comm. 2017). There are no recent records in The Netherlands (de Winter pers. comm. 2017).|
The main areas with remaining populations lie in Sweden, the greatest populations include limestone areas around Lake Storsjön, and on the southern islands of Öland and Gotland in the Baltic Sea, with four additional isolated calcareous sites in the mountains to the north of Lake Storsjön (T. von Proschwitz pers. comm. 2017). In Switzerland, the species is known from the Gorges du Twingi at Binn (VS), the central Grisons, Basse-Engadine, central Engadine and the Val Müstair, and whilst the species is extinct in the Genève area, records might be expected for the Lukmanier region and perhaps Valais (Rüetschi et al. 2012).
Outside Europe, the species is known from northwestern Africa, where it was found at a single location in the Djurdjura Mountains, Algeria (Holyoak and Seddon 1993). It has not been recorded from Ukraine nor Russia.
Native:Andorra; Finland; France (France (mainland)); Ireland; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Norway; Poland; Slovakia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; United Kingdom (Great Britain)
Possibly extinct:Germany; Netherlands
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Whilst some sites, such as in the UK, are stable due to active land management practices, in some other parts of its European distribution there has been continued decline reported and loss of subpopulations: eg. Ireland (40% loss; E. Moorkens pers. comm. 2010) and Switzerland (30% loss).|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||In general, there are several distinct types of habitat where the species is recorded: sparsely vegetated dune hollows, and in damp vegetation with bare mud around lakes and calcareous fens. In the UK, it is a species of sparsely vegetated dune hollows and grazed dunes (at Branton Burrows, north Devon) and calcareous fens in upland areas, with patches of bare mud (Seddon et al. 2014). In Ireland, it is found in sparsely vegetated dune hollows and grazed, sparsely vegetated floodplains of larger lakes (Byrne et al. 2009). In Switzerland, it lives on bare mud on steep slopes with permanent seeps, runoff or springs, along rivers, and on open, steep walls of alpine creeks (Rüetschi et al. 2012).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not known to be used or traded.|
This species is vulnerable to habitat degradation and loss, as it occurs in habitats frequently drained for other purposes, as in Ireland (Byrne et al. 2009), or impacted by coastal development. In the Alps, habitat fragmentation has also raised concerns as to whether, with climate change, this species might be replaced by more common species such as Succinella oblonga (Turner et al. 1998). Another important threat is the water management in the Alps, where even smaller creeks are used for the construction of dams for drinking water and for electric power plants, with a multitude of changes in their water regime, such as the desiccation of seeps. Another quite modern threat is the increasing use of large quantities of water for artificial snow production for skiing areas, which leads to an enormous water consumption during winter. Both types of water use need numerous small to medium sized retention basins, and the influence of this changed regime in water use on the environment is not yet fully understood (Rüetschi et al. 2012).
This species is one of conservation interest in many of the countries within its European range, due to the small number of locations and the nature of the habitats. In Ireland it is considered Endangered (A2cB2ab(i-iv)), with fewer than five extant locations, and it is threatened by habitat destruction, with the three sites in Offaly and North Tipperary shown in the post-1980 map having been recently lost (E. Moorkens pers. comm. 2017). In the UK, it has been assessed as Vulnerable (D2), as although the species has a restricted range in Great Britain at three locations, it is currently stable and widespread across these sites, although active management is needed to maintain the habitats in favourable condition for the species (Seddon et al. 2014). In Switzerland, the species has not been found at six of the previously known 18 localities since 2000, and is considered Endangered (Turner et al. 1998, Rüetschi et al. 2012). In Slovakia it is only known from two sites and is considered rare. In Norway the species was assessed as Vulnerable (B2a((i))b(iii); D2), but later revised to Data Deficient (Artsdatabanken 2015).
The lack of threats and presence in protected areas means the species is considered Least Concern in Sweden.
|Citation:||Seddon, M.B. 2017. Quickella arenaria. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T4033A1323236.Downloaded on 21 January 2018.|
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