|Scientific Name:||Callicebus nigrifrons|
|Species Authority:||(Spix, 1823)|
Callicebus personatus subspecies nigrifrons (Spix, 1823)
|Taxonomic Notes:||Kobayashi and Langguth (1999) and van Roosmalen et al. (2002) recognize five species groups – cupreus, donacophilus, moloch, personatus and torquatus. Callicebus nigrifrons belongs to the personatus group which also includes: Callicebus barbarabrownae, Callicebus coimbrai, Callicebus melanochir and Callicebus personatus.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Veiga, L.M., Kierulff, C.M., de Oliveira, M.M. & Mendes, S.L.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Near Threatened as it is reasonable to assume that the species has undergone a decline in the region of 20-25% over the past 25 years (three generations) due to extensive habitat loss in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Almost qualifies as threatened under criterion A2c.
|Range Description:||Callicebus nigrifrons is distributed over a relatively wide area in south-eastern Brazil. Its range includes much of São Paulo, southern Minas Gerais, and eastern Rio de Janeiro states. It has the largest distribution of any species in the personatus group (van Roosmalen et al. 2002), It is found north of the Tietê and east of the Rios Paraná and Parnaíba, and on both margins of the upper Rio São Francisco. The species extends east as far as the Mantiqueira and Espinhaço ranges, where it meets the range of C. personatus.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population density of C. nigrifrons in a 50-ha forest fragment was estimated at 80–100 individuals per km² (Soares 2006), which is six times higher than for C. personatus (a similar-sized species living in the same habitat). In the Atlantic forest, a mean density of 15.67 ± 6.51 individuals/km² has been recorded (Chiarello and Melo 2001).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||An inhabitant of the Atlantic forest, occurring in both mature rain forest and disturbed fragments. The ecology of this species is relatively unknown, with most data coming from inferences based on studies of other members in the genus, which suggest that this species is frugivorous, monogamous, lives in small family groups (2 to 5 individuals) and is territorial (Cäsar et al. in press). A considerable amount of time is spent of foraging and feeding (47%), and a significant amount of time resting (21%) (Franco 2006).|
|Major Threat(s):||This species inhabits the most developed and populous region of Brazil, and has suffered extensive habitat loss and fragmentation. Although the species is widespread, urbanization, expanding agriculture and logging practices have led to extreme fragmentation of the forests within its range and resulting small isolated populations. In many places, they have been locally or regionally extirpated even where forests patches remain.|
Occurs in several protected areas, including the Serra do Mar reserve complex, the Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA Sul), in the municipality of Nova Lima, south of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte and even the Cantareira State Park in the centre of the city of São Paulo. The extensive fragmentation of remaining habitat throughout its range may necessitate a metapopulation management strategy in the future (Printes et al. in prep).
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.
|Citation:||Veiga, L.M., Kierulff, C.M., de Oliveira, M.M. & Mendes, S.L. 2008. Callicebus nigrifrons. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 December 2013.|
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