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Lagothrix lugens

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES ATELIDAE

Scientific Name: Lagothrix lugens
Species Authority: Elliot, 1907
Common Name(s):
English Colombian Woolly Monkey
Spanish Mono Barrigudo
Synonym(s):
Lagothrix lagotricha subspecies lugens Elliot, 1907
Taxonomic Notes: The taxonomy of Lagothrix is based on Fooden (1963), but follows Groves (2001, 2005) in recognizing cana (E. Geoffroy, 1812), lugens Elliot, 1907, and poeppigii Schinz, 1844 as full species rather than subspecies of lagotricha (Humboldt, 1812). Groves (2001, 2005) also recognized the form tschudii Pucheran, 1857, from Peru (see Cruz Lima 1945).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A3cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Stevenson, P. & Link, A.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Critically Endangered as it seems reasonable to expect that the population of this species will decline in the order of 80% over the next 45 years (three generations) due primarily to the effects of habitat loss and hunting.
History:
2003 Vulnerable (IUCN 2003)
2003 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Endangered (Groombridge 1994)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The range was delimited by Defler (2003, 1004) and Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976). Occurs to the north of the lower Río Guayabero, where it is scarce (Klein and Klein 1976). More common through the piedmont of the Uribe region (between La Macarena and the Cordillera Oriental and in the Serrania La Macarena). It extends north to the along the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental to about 3,000 m. In Central Colombia, L. lugens extends from the upper Magdalena valley to at least southern Tolima, west of the of the Río Magdalena and historically at least to the southern part of the Department of Cesar, on the west side of the Cordillera. It is almost certainly extinct there today. There is an isolated enclave in the Serrania de San Lucas in south-eastern Bolivar and northern Antioquia at the northern end of the Central Cordillera. The San Lucas population, studied briefly by Kavanagh and Dresdale, 1975), may have been connected to the populations of the upper Magdalena valley when there was forest there. L. lugens meets L. lagothricha somewhere in the Department of Caquetá, but exactly where is not known.

Bodini and Pérez-Hernández (1987) reported that no woolly monkeys have been collected in Venezuela, but that they would expect L. lugens to occur in the Selva San Camilo. State of Apure (following the distribution proposed by Fooden [1963] and Hernández-Camacho and Cooper [1976]).
Countries:
Native:
Colombia (Colombia (mainland))
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Occurs at densities of up to 50 individuals/km² in protected areas (P. Stevenson pers. comm.).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Occurs in primary forest from lowlands up to elevations of 3,000 m. They have also been recorded in gallery and Mauritia palm forest odf the eastern plains of Colombia as well as in seasonally flooded forest (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976; Klein and Klein 1976; Moynihan 1976). Studying a group of L. lugens in the Tinigua National Park, Colombia, Stevenson et al. (1994) observed a preference for mature forest (82% of the group's time spent there) over open, degraded forest (11%) and flooded forest (5%).

In 1967, Klein and Klein (1976) made some observations on the habitat and distribution of this species in La Macarena Natural National Park, Colombia, and Bernstein et al. (1976a) and Kavanagh and Dresdale (1975) made a brief study of its behaviour in a patch of cloud forest in the Serrania de San Lucas, Bolívar, Colombia. Woolly monkeys are frugivores, eating also young leaves, leaf buds, flowers, nectar and bark (Ramirez 1980). Stevenson et al. (1994) reviewed observations on group sizes in the Tinigua National Park. Seven groups observed during the late 1980s and early 1990s ranged in size from 14 to about 33. One of the groups (17 individuals: 4 adult males, 5 adult females, 1 subadult male, 1 subadult female, 2 infant males and 2 infant females) ranged over 169 ha.

Late maturation and long inter-birth intervals (typically around 3 years) makes it difficult for them to recover from hunting and other threats. Females begin mating at 5 or 6 years of age, when they leave their natal groups, but do not conceive until 1.5-3 years later (Nishimura et al. 1992).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats are hunting for food (mainly subsistence) and habitat loss due agricultural development/expansion. Habitat loss is also taking place due to clearance of forest for coca plantations, accompanied by fumigation of coca plantations that results in defoliation of contiguous forests. Late maturation and long inter-birth intervals (typically around 3 years) makes it difficult for them to recover from hunting and other threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in the three contiguous protected areas of:

La Macarena National Park (630,000 ha) (see Nishimura and Izawa 1975; Nishimura 1986; 1988, 1990a,b; Stevenson 1992)
Tinigua National Natural Park (201,875 ha) (see Stevenson et al. 1994; Stevenson 2000; Stevenson and Castellanos 2000)
Cordillera de los Picachos Natural National Park (286,600 ha) (in range: Defler 2003, 2004).

Also present in Cueva de los Guacharos Natural National Park (9,000 ha) (INDERENA 1989).

This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES.

Citation: Stevenson, P. & Link, A. 2008. Lagothrix lugens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 November 2014.
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