|Scientific Name:||Aotus brumbacki|
|Species Authority:||Hershkovitz, 1983|
Aotus lemurinus Hershkovitz, 1983 subspecies brumbacki
|Taxonomic Notes:||It is doubtful that the current taxonomy provides a true picture of the diversity of the genus Aotus. Ruiz-Herrera et al. 2005) reported that cytogenetic studies have characterized 18 different karyotypes with diploid numbers ranging from 46 to 58 chromosomes. The taxonomy of the night monkeys essentially follows the revision by Hershkovitz (1983), with some modifications for the Colombian and Central American forms.
Reviewing the entire taxonomy and distributions of the night monkeys, Aotus, Ford (1994) carried out multivariate analyses of craniodental measures and pelage patterns and color, and also took into consideration chromosomal data and blood protein variations. Ford (1994) concluded that there was “good support” for just two species north of the Río Amazonas: A. trivirgatus (Humboldt, 1812) east and north of the Rio Negro, and the polymorphic A. vociferans to the west of the Rio Negro. Aotus vociferans, as such, would include all the forms north of the Río Amazonas/Solimões in Brazil (west of the Rio Negro), Peru, Colombia and Ecuador, and in the Chocó, northern Colombia and Colombian Andes, and Panama: brumbacki, lemurinus, griseimembra and zonalis.
Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) restricted both lemurinus (Colombian Andes, elevations from 1,000 to 1500 m up to 3,000–3,200 m) and griseimembra (northern lowlands, Santa Marta mountains, west to Río Sinú, Río San Jorge, lower Río Cauca and lowlands of middle and upper Río Magdalena) to Colombia, while recognizing the form zonalis as the night monkey of north-western Colombia (Chocó) and Panama. Hershkovitz (1983) recognized lemurinus and griseimembra as distinct, but considered them to be subspecies of a single species; he made no mention of the name zonalis, but as he ascribed Central American night monkeys to A. lemurinus lemurinus, by implication he was regarding it as a synonym of this latter form. Groves (2001) followed Hernández-Camacho and Cooper (1976) in recognizing zonalis as the form in Panama, and listed it as a subspecies of lemurinus along with griseimembra and brumbacki Hershkovitz, 1983. Defler et al. (2001) concluded that the karyotype of Aotus hershkovitzi Ramirez-Cerquera, 1983 (from the upper Río Cusiana, Boyacá, Colombia; 2n = 58) was in fact that of true lemurinus, and that the karyotypes which Hershkovitz (1983) had considered to be those of lemurinus were in fact of zonalis. Defler et al. (2001) and others (Defler 2003, 2004; Defler and Bueno 2003) concluded that Aotus lemurinus of Hershkovitz (1983) is in fact three karyotypically well-defined species, and that the night monkeys of the lowlands of Panama and the Chocó region of Colombia belong to the species A. zonalis, and those of the Magdalena valley to A. griseimembra, while those above altitudes of 1500m should correctly be referred to as A. lemurinus. For a review of the taxonomy of the night monkeys of Panama and northern Colombia see Rylandset al. (2006).
Defler and Bueno (2007) discuss the karyology of the gray-necked night monkeys and reaffirm the validity of A. brumbacki, A. griseimembra, A. lemurinus, A. trivirgatus, A. vociferans and A. zonalis.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2c ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Morales-Jiménez, A.L., Link, A. & Stevenson, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Vulnerable as it is believed to have undergone a decline exceeding 30% over the past 3 generations (24 years) mainly as a result of ongoing habitat loss within its range. However, this species is less at risk than other Aotus species as there remain several strongholds in and around the PN Serrania de Macarena and PN Tinigua and they are able to persist in remaining forest fragments and gallery forests in the llanos.
|Range Description:||Aotus brumbacki is a lowland night monkey, that extends east from the Cordillera Oriental in Colombia between the Ríos Arauca and Guaviare (Hershkovitz 1983; Defler 2003, 2004). The form occurring along the middle and lower reaches of the Meta, Tomo and Vichada and Guaviare has not been ascertained. Based on a specimen collected at Maipures, near the mouth of the Río Tomo on the Río Orinoco, Defler and Bueno (2007) indicated that the night monkeys of eastern central Colombia north of the Río Guaviare may be A. brumbacki, extending the range of this species to the Río Orinoco. Neither Bodini and Pérez-Hernández (1987) nor Linares (1998) give any indication of the occurrence of A. brumbacki in Venezuela, north of the lower Río Arauca.|
Native:Colombia (Colombia (mainland))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||No population information available. Aquino and Encarnación (1994b) reviewed population structure and densities for the genus.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Night monkeys typically occur in primary and secondary forest (including disturbed forest and selectively logged forest), seasonally flooded and terra firma, lowland forest, and submontane and montane (cloud forests) in Colombia and the Andes to 3,200 m above sea level (the specifically montane forms are Aotus lemurinus and Aotus miconax) (Hernández Camacho and Cooper 1976; Aquino and Encarnación 1994a; Defler 2004). Aquino and Encarnación (1994b) reviewed the habitat and forest preferences of the genus.
Night monkeys are nocturnal: they are most active at dawn and dusk. The only exception is Aotus azarae azarae of the Chaco of southern Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina, which is cathemeral (active during night and day). They are frugivorous; their diet includes fruit, nectar and flower (seasonally important for the A. a. azarae in the Chaco), leaves, and small animals prey such as insects (Wright 1989; Fernandez-Duque 2007). Aotus azarae has been observed to include a significant portion of leaves in its diet (Ganzhorn and Wright 1994; Wright 1985; Arditi and Placci 1990; Giménez and Fernandez-Duque 2003), as has Aotus zonalis on Barro Colorado Island in an early study by Hladik and Hladik (1969).
They are socially monogamous, living in small groups of an adult pair and offspring of different ages (infant, one or two juveniles and sometimes a subadult. In A. a. azarae, a significant number of adults range alone. They may be subadults that have left their natal groups or older adults which have been evicted from their groups by competitors (Fernandez-Duque and Huntington 2002; Fernandez-Duque 2004). Both sexes disperse. Males care for the infants (carry them) (Rotundo et al. 2002, 2005). Lone adults were observed by Villavicencio Galindo (2003) in northern Colombia. Night monkeys are territorial—groups occupy overlapping territories of 5-18 ha (depending on the species and location) (Wright 1978; Fernandez-Duque 2007). Solano (1995) estimated a home range of 17.5 ha for A. brumbacki on the Río Duda in Tinigua Natural National Park, Colombia. Wright (1994) and Fernandez-Duque (2007) review the behaviour and ecology of the genus.
Captive male A. lemurinus reach sexual maturity when 2 years old, and captive female A. vociferans and A. nancymaae first breed when 3-4 years old (Dixson 1983; Fernandez-Duque 2007). In the wild, male A. azarae reach adult weight only when about 4 years old, and age at first reproduction is about 5 years of age (Juárez et al. 2003; Fernandez-Duque 2004). A female A. azaraewas found to breed for the first time at 58 months of age (Fernandez-Duque et al. 2002). Single offspring are the rule. Wright (1985) recorded births between August and February for A. nigriceps in Peru (Manu National Park), and Aquino et al. (1990) indicated a birth season between December and March) for A. nancymaae in north-eastern Peru. In the Argentinean Chaco, A. azarae shows a peak of births between March and June (Fernandez-Duque 2007).
Hernández-Camacho and Defler (1985) recorded a weight of 875 g for one individual (sex unknown), and 455 g for a female, probably not fully grown.
Except for the region around Villavicencio, Meta, the distribution of this species remains poorly known. However, over much of the known range, their habitat is declining rapidly due to expanding illicit crops, armed conflict and expanding cattle ranching. The taxon may extend south to the Rio Guaviare, where there would be healthy populations protected by one or two large national parks.
Many Aotus have been released from captivity outside of their range and could be hybridizing, but very little is known of the effects of this practice.
This species is confirmed, or may occur, in the following protected areas:
El Cocuy Natural National Park (306,000 ha) (possibly in range, Defler 2003, 2004)
Serranía de la Macarena Natural National Park (630,000 ha) (in range, Defler 2003, 2004)
El Tuparro Natural National Park (548,000 ha) (possibly in range, Defler 2003, 2004)
Tinigua Natural National Park (201,875 ha) (Solano 1985, 1986).
This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES (as Aotus lemurinus brumbacki).
|Citation:||Morales-Jiménez, A.L., Link, A. & Stevenson, P. 2008. Aotus brumbacki. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.|
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