|Scientific Name:||Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl.|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
Given the wide range of this species and the higher elevations at which it occurs plus the fact that it is not highly exploited for its timber (all use tends to be very local), there do not appear to be any concerns about this species and it is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Endemic to China: Beijing (Xi Shan), S Gansu, S Hebei, W Henan, Hubei (Badong Xian, Wudang Shan), Shaanxi, W Shandong, Shanxi, and N Sichuan.
The geographic range given above is based on the mapping of herbarium specimens, mostly in Beijing (PE)*, which we believe have been collected from trees growing in the wild. This map is roughly in agreement with that given by Ying et al. (2003). Other sources mention a wider distribution but seem to include planted specimens as well. This species is highly ornamental and has been planted in temple grounds, etc. for many centuries. A conservative estimate of the extent of occurrence based on our data is 347,807 km² but calculating the area of occupancy from this distribution probably overestimates it because the species is scattered.
* courtesy Dr. Qiaoping Xiang, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
Native:China (Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is presumed to be scattered but locally common.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Pinus bungeana occurs in mountains, often on limestone rocks and on south-facing slopes, scattered and mixed with P. tabuliformis and angiosperms. In the northern part of its range it is also common on acid soils. Its altitudinal range is probably between 500 m and 2,150 m a.s.l.; records from lower elevations are probably not from natural occurrences, but from planted trees. It is a light demanding species and therefore is usually restricted to sites less suitable for other trees, especially angiosperms.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||No|
|Generation Length (years):||15|
|Use and Trade:||Lace-bark Pine is a decorative tree because of its patterned bark reminiscent of plane (Platanus), but more colourful (although in old trees becoming nearly white) and it is commonly cultivated in China as an amenity tree. It has traditionally been planted around temples and in cemeteries in northern China and Korea, from where some of the earlier records of the species originate, including that by Alexander von Bunge in Beijing in 1831. It was introduced to England in 1843 but is still not very common in gardens and parks of Europe. Of lesser importance is the use of its timber, but in NE China it is locally a source for roundwood such as poles as well as construction timber, fences and gates, and utilities such as boxes, crates and pallets, while more refined applications are in furniture and veneers. The seeds are edible and are used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate respiratory ailments.|
|Major Threat(s):||The range of this species is well beyond the threshold for any threatened category based on the B criterion. There is no evidence of a decline in extent of occurrence or area of occupancy and its habitat is in part inaccessible and not subject to exploitation. Its wood is not valued as a source of timber. Most locations recorded are outside protected areas, only one collection was from the Wudaoxia Reserve. There are probably other reserves that have this species growing in the wild.|
|Conservation Actions:||Most locations recorded are outside protected areas, only one collection was from the Wudaoxia Reserve. There are probably other reserves that have this species growing in the wild.|
|Citation:||Luscombe, D. 2013. Pinus bungeana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T39602A2930000.Downloaded on 22 November 2017.|
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