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Pistacia mexicana 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Sapindales Anacardiaceae

Scientific Name: Pistacia mexicana
Species Authority: Kunth
Common Name(s):
Spanish Pistache Cimarrón
Taxonomic Notes: Pistacia mexicana H.B.K. belongs to the secondary Gene Pool of P. vera L. (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2013).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2014-01-31
Assessor(s): Maxted, N. & Rhodes, L.
Reviewer(s): Fielder, H. & Oldfield, S.
Justification:
Pistacia mexicana is globally assessed as Near Threatened as it is an uncommon species, categorized as Vulnerable (A1c) in a previous Red List assessment (Ramirez-Marcial and González-Espinosa 1998) based on the IUCN's 1994 Red List Categories and Criteria. This assessment suggests that the species has undergone a population size reduction of at least 20% over 10 years or three generations, whichever is longer, inferred from a reduction in area of occupancy (AOO), extent of occurrence (EOO) or quality of habitat. In this case it is likely that three generations of the species is between 150 to 600 years (Parfitt and Badenes 1997), though it is not known which of the three variables (AOO, EOO or habitat quality) led the authors of the 1998 Red List assessment to the conclusion that the population was in decline. Under the 2001 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, the threshold to be classified as Vulnerable under criterion A has changed to a population reduction over 10 years or three generations, whichever is longer, of at least 30%. As a result, without further population information, this species does not meet this threshold. However, it is suspected that with further survey work of native populations this threshold may well be met (VU A2c) as the threats facing the species are unlikely to have ceased.

A population survey across this species' native range should be carried out as a priority and active in situ and ex situ conservation actions should be implemented in appropriate localities to ensure its long-term survival.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is restricted in altitudinal range (500–2,500 m asl) and distribution; populations are recorded from southern Mexico and Guatemala (Ramirez-Marcial and González-Espinosa 1998). It is also native to Honduras (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2014).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:1553129
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Lower elevation limit (metres):500
Upper elevation limit (metres):2500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is noted as uncommon and a previous assessment noted population size reduction inferred by a decline in either area of occupancy, extent of occurrence or habitat quality (Ramirez-Marcial and González-Espinosa 1998).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:UnknownPopulation severely fragmented:Unknown
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:UnknownAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Pistacia mexicana is a semi-deciduous species that is found in dry, montane scrub or pine-oak formations from 500 to 2,500 m asl (Ramirez-Marcial and González-Espinosa 1998) and calcareous soil over limestone, rocky or gravelly areas (Al-Saghir and Porter 2012).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):50-200

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is a secondary genetic relative of the cultivated Pistachio Pistacia vera (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2014) and so it has the potential for use as a gene donor for crop improvement.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In a previous assessment, habitat loss and degradation from the effects of growing agriculture and pastoralism has been identified as a threat to this species (Ramirez-Marcial and González-Espinosa 1998); it is suspected that these threat are ongoing.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Two accessions of this species are available from the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS, in the USA), both of which are of wild origin (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2014). No records were found in the EURISCO Catalogue (2013), or the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV 2013). Furthermore, no evidence of in situ conservation was found for this species. 

Priorities for this species include further gathering of germplasm material for addition to ex situ collections, ensuring that the collections are fully representative of the range of genetic diversity found in populations in the wild. Surveying of in situ populations to identify any incidences of existing conservation and to aid further in situ conservation planning is also recommended.

Citation: Maxted, N. & Rhodes, L. 2016. Pistacia mexicana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T38923A61524679. . Downloaded on 10 December 2016.
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