Ilex canariensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Celastrales Aquifoliaceae

Scientific Name: Ilex canariensis Poir.
Taxonomic Source(s): Valdés, B. 2012. Aquifoliaceae. In: Euro+Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. . Berlin Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-12
Assessor(s): Beech, E., Fernandes, F. & da Silva Menezes de Sequeira, M.
Reviewer(s): Silva, L., Scholz, S., del Arco Aguilar, M., Reyes Betancort, J.A. & Allen, D.J.
This species is a small tree found only in the Canary Islands and Madeira. It is here assessed as Least Concern as it has a large extent of occurrence and there are no reported significant threats to this species. The species is found in an ex situ collections and extensively in protected areas.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found in both Madeira and the Canary Islands where it is found on all the islands except Lanzarote and Fuerteventura (Anthos 2016, Gobierno de Canarias 2017). The estimated extent of occurrence of this species is 82,165 km2. It is found between 200 and 1,300 m asl (S. Schulz pers. comm. 2017).
Countries occurrence:
Portugal (Madeira); Spain (Canary Is.)
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:81642
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Lower elevation limit (metres):200
Upper elevation limit (metres):1300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:On Madeira, the population is between 1,000 and 5,000 and is stable. On the Canaries the population is very large and assumed to be stable.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species grows as an evergreen small tree up to 10-15 m tall. The species is found mainly at middle altitudes in Mediterranean laurisilva and in substitutional Erica-Myrica thickets.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The tree is sold for use in horticulture. In Madeira, it is used for Christmas decoration. It was used for inlay and furniture.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The seeds of this species are predated on by introduced rats post-dispersal, but it is not known what the effect of this is on the recruitment of the species (Salvande et al. 2006). The threats to this species in Madeira are invasive species, increasing the risk and intensity of fire (mainly Pittosporum and Acacia). The plant benefited from the abandonment of agriculture and has expanded into this area, however agriculture may return in the future.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The Madeiran populations are found within the UNESCO World Heritage Site and in Natura 2000 sites. It was assessed as 'Lower Risk/near threatened' globally (WCMC 1998). Management of invasive populations would be beneficial for this species on Madeira. On the Canaries, most of the distribution is within natural protected areas. This species is reported as held in 15 ex situ collections (BGCI 2016).

Citation: Beech, E., Fernandes, F. & da Silva Menezes de Sequeira, M. 2017. Ilex canariensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T38394A102000874. . Downloaded on 25 May 2018.
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