Acalypha rubrinervis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Malpighiales Euphorbiaceae

Scientific Name: Acalypha rubrinervis Cronk
Common Name(s):
English Stringwood
Acalypha rubra Roxb. in Beatson non Willd. nec Wight ex Wallich

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-06-07
Assessor(s): Lambdon, P.W. & Ellick, S.
Reviewer(s): Clubbe, C.P.
Contributor(s): Cronk, Q.C.B.
The Stringwood (Acalypha rubrinervis) was last recorded between 1855 and 1875, as a single individual transplanted to cultivation at Oakbank. The Central Ridge, which extends for less than 10 kilometres, has now been extensively explored and there is little chance of further individuals remaining undetected.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Stringwood was formerly endemic to the island of St Helena, South Atlantic Ocean, where probably confined to the Central Ridge.

Very little is known about the former range of this species. In the 19th Century it was recorded from the Diana’s Peak area, Cason’s and near ‘Round Tower’ (a locality now obscure), though it was undoubtedly already very rare. The named sites suggest a preference for high elevations (700 m  and above) on the Central Ridge, but it is possible that it formerly also extended to lower altitudes where almost complete deforestation had already occurred.
Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Saint Helena (main island))
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):700
Upper elevation limit (metres):700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:0

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Stringwood was a monoecious shrub, evidently wind-pollinated, with long male catkins. The solitary female flowers matured into red capsules containing 3 seeds which were moderately large for an Acalypha species and had no obvious means of dispersal, unless by some long-extinct bird species. The few recorded localities appear to have been amongst cloud forest vegetation, dominated by Tree Ferns (Dicksonia arborescens L'Hér) and cabbage trees.
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss undoubtedly played a major part in the species’ extinction. However, fragments of cloud forest, still supporting a rich endemic flora, persist until the present day, and the reason for the uninhibited decline within these stronghold remain unknown.

Citation: Lambdon, P.W. & Ellick, S. 2016. Acalypha rubrinervis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T37854A67371775. . Downloaded on 25 June 2018.
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