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Mangifera austro-indica 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Sapindales Anacardiaceae

Scientific Name: Mangifera austro-indica
Species Authority: Kosterm.
Taxonomic Source(s): Kostermans, A.J.G.H. and Bompard, J.-M. 1993. The Mangoes. Academic Press Ltd., London.
Taxonomic Notes: Mangifera austro-indica Kosterm. belongs to Taxon Group two of Mango M. indica L.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2014-01-01
Assessor(s): Rhodes, L. & Maxted, N.
Reviewer(s): Fielder, H. & Dillon, N.
Justification:
This species is globally assessed as Endangered B2ab(iii) due to its previous Red List assessment stating that it had an area of occupancy below 100 km2 and was found in fewer than five locations (WCMC 1998). In addition to this, the species occurs in a fragmented habitat that is subject to a large range of threats which infers that the habitat is undergoing continuous decline. Survey work should be undertaken to confirm the population distribution, size and trends. There is also a lack of evidence for in situ or ex situ conservation for the species. The establishment of active conservation measures for this species are urgently required, with a focus on in situ population management and monitoring.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species occurs in the districts of Salem (Tamil Nadu state) and Kodagu (Karnataka state) in India at altitudes between 1,900–2,220 m a.s.l. (WCMC 1998, WWF 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
India (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:100Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Number of Locations:5
Lower elevation limit (metres):1900
Upper elevation limit (metres):2220
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:From a herbarium specimen collected in 1980 this species was documented to be locally abundant at the mouth of a cascade in Salem (Periakalarayan hills, Nagalur forests) (RBG Kew 2013). However, in 1998, this species was assessed for the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable (D2) based on a small or restricted population (area of occupancy typically less than 100 km2 or found in fewer than five locations) (WCMC 1998, IUCN 1994).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:UnknownPopulation severely fragmented:Unknown
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:UnknownAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Mamgifera austro-indica is endemic to shola forest, a stunted montane forest surrounded by grasslands that is part of the western Ghats ecoregion in India (WWF 2013). The structure of this shola-grassland habitat complex means that it is naturally fragmented, though anthropogenic activities have contributed to habitat loss and so have increased habitat fragmentation (Bunyan et al. 2012).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species belongs to Taxon Group two of the cultivated Mango Mangifera indica (Kostermans and Bompard 1993) and so it has the potential for use as a gene donor for crop improvement.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are a wide range of threats to the shola habitats in India which are likely to be having some impact on Mangifera austro-indica. Bunyan et al. (2012) describe historical habitat loss due to the development of plantations for timber production and tea. The same authors highlight a number of current threats including: invasive species (e.g. Calceolaria mexicana and Erigeron karvinskianus), cattle grazing and over-harvesting (the impact of which is greater near human settlements) (Harper et al. 2005) as well as the potential for small fragments to be dominated by edge effects and therefore susceptible to complete collapse (Turner and Corlett 1996). The WWF (2013) outline a number of threats facing the western Ghats ecoregion in general, a number of which are highly likely be threatening the shola habitat found in the ecoregion, these include: forest conversion for plantations (tea, coffee, potato, teak, eucalyptus and cardamom), road construction, tourism and livestock grazing (Rodgers and Panwar 1988). The mountains in this region are also mineral-rich and so mining could become a serious threat in the future (WWF 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Only two herbarium specimens were found for this species (RBG, Kew and National Herbarium Nederland, Leiden), therefore this species is presumed to have no ex situ conservation in place. According to the Seed Information Database of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (RBG Kew 2008), this species is recalcitrant and so its seeds cannot be dried and frozen for storage in gene banks. Therefore, a more appropriate ex situ conservation strategy should be developed, for example, growing living specimens in botanical gardens that are representative of the species geographic and genetic diversity in its native habitat. In situ conservation is therefore particularly important for this species. However, from its known distribution (Salem and Kodagu districts in the states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka respectively) this species does not seem to occur in any protected areas. In situ conservation with active population management and monitoring is urgently required, through protection in existing reserves (surveys should be carried out to determine whether this species does occur in any reserves) and/or through cooperation with local communities.

Citation: Rhodes, L. & Maxted, N. 2016. Mangifera austro-indica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T37509A61527109. . Downloaded on 24 February 2017.
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