|Scientific Name:||Caluromys philander|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The northern Venezuelan populations, including Margarita Island and Trinidad, likely represent a distinct species, which is currently under revision by Perez-Hernandez and Lopez-Fuster (Lew and Soriano pers. comm.).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Brito, D., Astua de Moraes, D., Lew, D., Soriano, P. & Emmons, L.|
|Reviewer(s):||Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is listed as Least Concern in because of its wide distribution, presumed large population, occurrence in a number of protected areas and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category. Some populations of this species are threatened by loss of forest habitat as it is arboreal and confined to forest.
|Range Description:||The species ranges from northern Venezuela to northeastern and southcentral Brazil, inlcuding Margarita Island, Trinidad, Guyana, French Guiana, and Surinam. It can be found up to 1,800 m in elevation (Eisenberg and Redford, 1999; Emmons and Feer, 1997). In Venezuela, it is found from sea level to 1200 m (Lew pers. comm.).|
Native:Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of (Venezuelan Antilles)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is fairly common throughout its extensive range. It thrives in disturbed vegetation, although it requires forest (Emmons and Feer, 1997; Nowak, 1999).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species inhabits arboreal strata in rain forest, subtropical forest, and marginal forest, as well as semi-natural areas such as plantations, secondary vegetation, and abandoned human settlement areas. It seems to prefer thick, closed vegetation, although it is also found in the upper, open canopy area of the trees.
Nocturnal and solitary, C. philander is the best field studied species of its genus. It is highly arboreal; it is rarely taken on the ground and is strongly associated with moist habitats. Although most specimens have been taken in multistratal evergreen forests, the species is adaptable, and has been caught in orchards. Populations can become isolated with habitat destruction, as it can not cross open areas of more than a few hundred metres (Brito pers. comm.). It often shelters in tree cavities, where it constructs a nest of dead leaves. Although its diet is primarily fruit, it also includes gum, nectar, small vertebrates, and invertebrates. It is not known to exhibit torpor (Eisenberg and Redford, 1999).
Litter size is four to six, and gestation is assumed to be about 14 days. The young remain in the mother’s pouch for approximately eighty days, then enter a nest phase for another thirty days. During the nest phase the mother returns from her nocturnal forays to nurse. Young disperse from the natal nest at about 130 days of age. The female does not breed until she is approximately one year old. Maternal care is prolonged. Females can produce three litters a year, but if there is a seasonal scarcity of food she will probably not rear more than one litter each year (Atramentowicz, 1982; O’Connell, 1979).
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats known to this species. However, habitat loss may affect the species locally.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species occurs in a number of protected areas.|
|Citation:||Brito, D., Astua de Moraes, D., Lew, D., Soriano, P. & Emmons, L. 2008. Caluromys philander. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 January 2015.|
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